Old St. Andrews



In the Time of Cholera



Aug 21/1834
From Montreal Gazette:
It appears by the cholera returns that from the 12th to 14th of July inclusive, a period of 20 days, 410 deaths are attributed to cholera alone. This is certainly a fearful amount, but nothing when compared to them mortality of 1832, during a similar period, after the first appearance of the malady among us. In that year, the first cause occurred on the 10th June, and on the 29th of that month, an equal period of 20 days, the burials were 1037 by cholera alone.


Mr. Weston's "History of Eastport" published and reviewed.


Aug 28/1834
Asiatic cholera hits Halifax. From Nova Scotian, Aug.20. . . . Boston and the cities along the American seaboard were but slightly affected by it, and as Nova Scotia is almost encircled by the sea, and Halifax in particular has so fine an exposure to the clear sea-breezes from the ocean, we have trusted much to those advantages of which experience has oft-times tested the value." (as though sea-air were a preventative) First appearance in Quebec struck down hundreds as by a whirlwind. No deaths as of yet. Smallpox scare in St. Andrews overblown.


Sept 11/1834
17 deaths by cholera in Halifax. 126 cases to Sept. 3. Nova Scotian.


Sept 18/1834
Haley's comet visible.
Musselburgh district (England?) Fumigating cholera with chlorine raised from sea-salt. Various articles on cholera in Nova Scotia, cures, etc. From Saint John Courier: preventative measures must be taken to prevent spread among provinces next to Nova Scotia.
            Various warnings against using alcohol as preventative of cholera. Weakens system.
Halifax cholera report: 563 deaths, 324 recoveries, 691 cases. Saint John Courier.


Sept 25/1834
Remedies for and stages of cholera. From Charlotte County Board of Health.


Oct. 2/1834
Cholera subsiding in Nova Scotia.
Article on inspecting incoming ships by team of health experts.


Oct. 9/1834
Saint John cholera: 5 deaths, 11 cases, 3 recovered, 3 remaining. From Saint John Courier.


No restrictions in St. Andrews on commerce or communication with interior as a result of cholera scare. Little fear of contagion. Official position that communication a better preventative than restriction, which seems a bit odd.


Dec 8/1847
Cape Breton Spectator says prepare for a new round of Asiatic cholera, already making its way towards Europe. Following same track as 1838; already outside Moscow. If it reaches England, we're in for it. Should prepare by rigid sanitation in streets, yards and houses.


Oct 18/1848
Asiatic cholera may have made an appearance in St. Louis.


Nov 15/1848
45 cholera fatalities in London and deaths in isolated parts of country. No great amount, it is felt.


Nov 22/1848
Cholera making inroads in England.


Dec 9/1848
Cholera cases in England have reached 1039, 532 fatalities.


Dec 13/1848
New electric light produced in England. Article. Trade between Boston, New Brunswick and NS much increased of late.


Dec 16/1848
Cholera has reached NY via packet ship New York from Havre. Standard published bi-weekly.




Dec 23/1848
Cholera in New Orleans.


Oct 7/1848
Teetotalism and cholera: piece from the Teetotal Times and Essayist: "Far be it from us to say that teetotalism will preserve a man from the attacks of cholera. But this we may boldly affirm that of three classes of persons, the drunkard, the moderate drinker and the teetotaler, the chances of escape or recovery are vastly in favor of the latter."


June 13/1849
Cholera making way from southern to northern US. Cases in NY and Boston.


July 4/1849
Cholera spreading rapidly in England. Worse ravages in Paris then in 1832. Egypt also. "Its simultaneous appearance at these distant spots favours the theory that it is mainly owing to some electric causes in the atmosphere." Various items in news on experiments in electricity.


Aug 29/1849
926 deaths from cholera in London last week.


Oct 10/1849
Cholera subsiding in England. 12,837 dead in London alone.


June 18/1851
Quarantine regulations. Esp. concerned about small-pox, yellow fever and Asiatic cholera.


Sept 22/1852
Cholera 0g on continental Europe proceeding westward.


Oct 12/1853
Cholera spreading in England.


Jan 4/
NY Times expects severe onset of cholera in summer, may hit BNA as well.


April 26/1854
35 deaths on Blanche from Liverpool of diarrhoea and cholera. Passengers landed at Partridge Island.


July 26/1854
Cholera declining in Saint John. Editors advises removal of offal heaps in St. Andrews. Diminishing in New York but still strong in Canada.


Aug 2/1854
Re cholera and typhus: "It has been suggested, that a Board of Health should at once be established for this port, and that every precaution be taken to prevent vessels with passengers landing them, unless they show a clean bill of health. It is currently reported that many persons are about visiting St. Andrews, to enjoy its salubrious air and sea bathing. Of this they may rest assured, the Town is exceedingly healthy and no place better adapted for invalids in the Province, as they can enjoy either a salt or fresh water bath, within a few minutes' walk of the Town, and pleasant drives among some of the most beautiful and romantic scenery in the Province."


Morning News
Aug 7, 1854
ST. Andrews and the Railroad
Mr. Editor,
Being one of the victims of terror whom cholera had driven away, I found myself after a few hours sail, safely landed in the renowned railroad [town of?]  St. Andrews. To one who has for a long time lived in Saint John, and its bustle and confusion, walked its crowded streets, and had his ears greeted with the din of the business populace--so such a one, St. Andrews presents no charm. its streets are well laid out and clean, all of which reflects a deal of credit upon the proper authorities. Nevertheless, I think that while death in laying prostrate unnumbered hundreds in our own city and in nearly all the United States, that the fact should act as an impetus to arouse the authorities to energetic and prompt effort in having every back yard and public depository well cleaned. It is the height of folly to remain inactive till the necessity for being otherwise is close at hand. Keep danger at arms-length is the motto of wise men, and no doubt, clean as St. Andrews is in appearance--if a rigid scrutiny was observed by its Board of Health, a great deal of cholera ingredients would be found to exist concealed from public gaze.
            Everything here presents a dull and dismal appearance--a sort in inanimation appears to be the reigning disposition among the people. Travel any city, town or village in New Brunswick, and there cannot I believe be found among them all one so calculated to become great as St. Andrews. If a little of the energy of Saint John was imbibed among its people, in a little time it would be but second only to Saint John.
            What surprises a stranger most of all is the number of houses and the scarcity of people; many, very many of the neat little residences about this town are lying waste for want of occupants; and to walk the streets is but to walk in solitude and alone. This speaks sad things of a section of the province which once enjoyed a flourishing trade with the West indies, which boasted of being the centre of New Brunswick wealth--and which in reality did contain men and merchants of princely competency; but reverses came--a period in the nation’s history arrived when the edict went forth from the Throne of England which loosed the manacled limbs of the Sons of Africa, and which at the same time crippled, yea ruined, the commercial prospects of St. Andrews. Converse with any of its old inhabitants and they will tell you of the progress their merchants were making and the rapid advancement of the town during the day of which I have spoken, but now as though they were paralyzed they sit them down and whine at the fatal past, letting the present pass by unimproved, and causing the prospect of the future to be dull and murky. Notwithstanding the attempt to build a railroad we yet discover no evidences of new life or fresh vigor, and what employment the few people find in order to live is beyond my powers of comprehension. I find two butchers in the town who think will not make their fortunes for a few years to come.
            The dry goods stores present a very good appearance--in fact, if it were not for these stores, the streets would be unaccountably gloomy.
            The rail cars I understand run now along the lien of road built - 16 miles - every morning; no great interest appears as yet to manifest itself in the existence of this road.
            There is great demand here now for the “News,” and stranger cannot be supplied. I know of several who called on Mr. Knowles for copies of Friday’s issue, and could not be supplied.--St. Andrew


Aug 9/1854
Cholera in Boston State Prison.


Aug 16/1854
Branch of Grand Trunk line to Riviere du Loup from Quebec under construction.


We have been requested to call attention to the practice of youths bathing in the public dock, at the Market Wharf, improperly exposing their persons, while passengers are landing from the steamer. The authorities will no doubt, take measures to put a stop to bathing in such public places


Cholera ravaging Saint John; St. Andrews spared. Apparently on the wane.


Houses belonging to 3 black persons dead of cholera in Loch Lomond burned by neighbors, with their clothing.


"Friend Smith, as soon as our City is once more restored to health, we intend to visit St. Andrews for the first time; and we merely give this notice that a ticket may be secured for us in order that we may be able to take a ride in a New Brunswick railroad—a real one. We cannot say when we will be able to give you a ride on our celebrated road." —Dig


Aug 23/1854
Cholera among British troops in Baltic; at Constantinople. Decreasing in Saint John. St. Andrews in good health. "Temperate habits, cleanliness, and the pure bracing air of the place, have contributed in a great measure to this pleasing fact, and we safely urge the propriety of appointing a Day of Humiliation and Prayer, to the Divine Being, for having spared our community, from the awful scourge, which has visited other parts of the Province."


Case of cholera in St. Stephen. First and only one to date. Death the outcome.


Hotel Accommodation—We have heard several complaints "deep and loud," within the past week, of the want of adequate accommodation for strangers. The truth is, our Hotels are full, at present, a circumstance which rarely, if indeed it ever occurred before; and the influx of visitors during the past few weeks has been so great, that many were obliged to proceed further up the river and stop at Calais; St. Stephen and Milltown, owing to the want of houses where they could procure lodgings. This is conclusive evidence if proof were required of the necessity of erecting a spacious House of Entertainment, such as we advocated in a previous issue of the Standard—viz. a large hotel, on an economical plan, furnished in a neat and plain manner, adapted more for comfort and convenience than show or style. We in common with many believe that such an establishment would pay well, even if kept open but four months of the year, in the same manner as those at Niagara Falls, and other places of resort during the summer months of the year. There is capital enough in the Town to erect such a House, but the fact is the energy is lacking. Why not form a private Company at once, purchase a vacant lot or lots, and erect such a building as we have suggested with out officers, etc., to plant trees around . . . in front. The furniture for such a house need not be expensive;—then either rent it to, or engage a competent person to conduct the establishment who would spare neither pains nor expense to render the visit of his patrons agreeable. We are credibly informed that if such a House is opened here next season, it will be thronged with visitors. The plan is feasible—the money, land and other requirements can be obtained; and now comes the question: Who has the necessary energy and public spirit to commence the work?


Aug 30/1854
Cholera has disappeared in Saint John.
John O'Brien running a Mail Stage between St. Andrews and St. Stephen. Leaving every other day. Prepared to carry passengers.


Sept 6/1854
Cholera ravaging southern States.


Aug 23, 1865
The Cholera
The press of Saint John in view of the rapid spread of the dreadful scourge the Cholera (which has made its way from the East to Gibraltar and it is reported a few cases have occurred in England) are urging upon the Board of Health and the common Council, to have the City properly cleaned, and all nuisances removed. The Shambles near the City are in such a filthy state, that Dr. Bayard says that fresh meat if exposed there for three or four hours would be unfit for human food!
            It would be admissible for the authorities in this Town to see to it that a thorough examination is made—that the yards and remises are kept clean, and that all public nuisances are removed. There are some one or two places which require their prompt attention.


Aug 15/1866
Temperance versus cholera:—At a meeting of the N. Y. Board of Health, last week,
Doctor Crane mentioned a striking fact in the following words: “In the Stygian and pest-ridden Twelfth Ward, of Brooklyn, not a solitary one of the five hundred members of the Father Matthew Society resident therein has been attacked by cholera.” Mr. Acton confirmed the remark by adding that not a cholera case had yet occurred among the 16,000 members of the Father Matthews Society in that city.


July 15/1890
Cholera spreading alarmingly in Spain. The gas company intends having its own system of electric lighting in place by the fall.


Feb 18/1892
Scraps of History
Gleaned from the Old Sessions Records of Charlotte
            Who has not heard the old resident dating his affairs “from the time of the cholera?” The first mention of “cholera” appears in the records of the Sessions of Charlotte, of April 11, 1832. The following resolutions were then adopted by that body:—
            “Whereas it is enacted by the laws of the Province that all vessels having on board the small pox, yellow fever, putrid bilious fever, or other pestilential or contagious distempers at the time of her departure were known or supposed to prevail or on board of which vessel any person during the voyage had died or been sick of any such distemper or having passengers on board should be subject to such rules and regulations made at any General Session of the Peace.”
            “And whereas a contagious distemper called the cholera morbus, among others, is now raging in the continent of Europe and in Great Britain, and it is highly necessary and expedient that necessary measures should be used to prevent the introduction of all contagious distempers into this Provinces, especially the cholera morbus,”
            “Therefore ordered, that all vessels from Europe bound to this County or from any other port having passengers on board shall anchor between the eastern end of St. Andrews island and the Sand reef; that pilots shall furnish masters of vessels with a copy of the printed regulations, or read and explain the same to them. Vessels on arriving within sight of the harbor of St. Andrews to make the signal pointed out by law in the day time and at night to have light in its stead. Captains and supercargoes of any vessel ordered to perform quarantine may hand over to the physician any letters or any papers in such manner as he may direct, which after being sufficiently fumigated to be forwarded to their destination.”
            The day following, the Sessions passed another resolution, ordering “that the pest house on Little Hardwood Island e finished with all convenient dispatch, and that Mr. Hatheway, Mr. Wyer and Mr. Hatch be a committee for that purpose.”
            When the court resumed its business the next day, the Clerk was “directed to borrow two hundred pounds on the credit of the County for the purpose of defraying the expenses incurred in erecting buildings, furnishing provisions, medical attendance, etc., for the emigrants reported diseased, or on board the brig Susan and for preventing the spreading of the cholera morbus and other infectious distempers in this county.


August 17, 1893
Hard times in the US, cholera in Europe, home rule agitation in Great Britain—Canada is not such a bad place after all.


Aug 30/1894
Article on baths as treatment for cholera.


Dec 3/1908
The Sea Water Cure for Disease
New York, Nov. 24
Mr.  Robert -Simon, doctor of medicine, University of Paris, has recently arrived in this country from France for the purpose of spreading through the medical profession of this country a wider knowledge of the subject of subcutaneous sea water injections for the treatment of tuberculosis and certain other diseases.
            The success of the treatment is announced to have been so great that two dispensaries exclusively for its application have been established in Paris, each of them receiving something like 300 poor patients each day.
            The exponents of the treatment that has attracted so much medical attention abroad are emphatic upon the point that sea water, not merely salt water, must be used.
            It is diluted, being too strong otherwise, and also sterilized before injection. Dr.  Robert -Simon brings with him the records of a large number of cases thus treated in the four years or so in which he has been studying the treatment and experimenting with it. In his American lectures he will explain the discovery and the experiment of Quinto and will indicate the general effect of injections, which are declared to be a powerful tonic for all organs of the body that have become weakened or debilitated.
            More in detail he will show the action of the treatment upon tuberculosis, but he will not stop there, for in his experiments he and other French physicians of standing have obtained excellent results in diseases of the digestive system, in anaemia, Peurasthenia, general debility, centeretis (in which Dr.  Robert -Simon reports more than eighty cures out of 100 cases), and especially in cholera infantum, where the action of the treatment has been found to be most remarkable in point of rapidity.
            Should later experiments substantiate the earlier ones the importance of the treatment in cholera infantum is believed by the French physicians to be incapable of exaggeration, for in this city of 1901 more than one third of the deaths of infants under one year old were due to cholera infantum.
            The sea water treatment is based upon biological discoveries by M. Quinton which led him to believe in the persistence of a vital marine in the cells of all living organisms. Upon this conclusion he based the theory that the injection of sea water would strengthen and restore unhealthy or weakened organs of the human body.
            the sea water treatment is said to be employed already in France by a majority of physicians and it has been extolled in public by such authorities as Prof. Landousy, Dean of the medical school of the University of Paris, and Dr. Lesage, who delivered an address upon the subject at Montreal before the congress of physicians of the French language. Neither Mr. Quinton nor any of his collaborators asserts that sea water treatment is a panacea but in addition to the diseases already mentioned they do assert that they have had some remarkable results with in the treatment of some skin diseases such as eczema, psoriasis, lupus, and tuberculosis wounds.
            If the treatment does what is claimed for it in the case merely of cholera infantum, its discoverer and developers hold its value in the saving of infant life will be incalculable.


St. Croix Courier
March 4/1920
Mrs. Cleveland Mitchell’s baby, who has been very ill from cholera, is improving rapidly.