Old St. Andrews



History of Journalism in St. Andrews



St. Croix Courier
Jan 27/1910
History of Journalism in St. Andrews
Paper Read Before Canadian Lit. Club by R. E. Armstrong
Feb 3 and Feb 10, 1910
The sum of accessible information with regard to the early history of St. Andrews is of so meager a character as to afford little material for the historian. The late Joseph W. Lawrence of St. John, of whom I have many kindly recollections, in his Foot Prints says that the St. Andrews Herald was the first paper published here. It appeared in the year 1819, 36 years after the first settlement of the Loyalist refugees in St. Andrews.
            It seems a little strange to us in these days of modern journalism, and “hustleism,” if I may be permitted to coin a word—that a town of such promise and prominence should have existed so long without a local paper to give voice to the ambitions of its people, more particularly as many of the first residents were men of culture and refinement, and were accustomed to newspapers in the homes that they abandoned in the United States. It is not the way that towns are built and boomed now-a-days.
            But it should be remembered that the conditions which prevailed then were vastly different from what they are today. The early journalists of St. Andrews labored under many disadvantages. The country was young. Coin was scarce. There were few roads in the province. They could not call to their aid, as can the journalists of today, such scientific and mechanical agencies as the locomotive, the steamship, the telegraph, the ocean cable, the telephone, the wireless message, the bicycle, the automobile—and may I also say the aeroplane. Most of these were unknown, scarcely dreamed of, 90 years ago.
            They had no typewriters to expedite their work in their sanctums. Short-hand was not in the general use that it is today. Everything had to be written by the slow, laborious hand process. Ninety years ago the method of setting up type had changed little from what it was in Gutenberg’s time. Indeed, the linotypes, the monolines, and the other type-setting and type casting machines, which are employed in the larger printing offices, have only been perfected within the last twenty five years. Stereotyping was unknown 90 years ago in general newspaper work. The printing presses were of the most primitive character, usually a Washington hand-press of an Armypress, from which not more than 200 or 400 copies could be produced in half a day, and that usually by the expenditure of a good deal of perspiration and profanity. Today the perfecting presses print editions up to 400 pages or more, turning them out folded and complete at the rate of 10,000 or 60,000 per hour. What perfection will be reached in the printer’s art during the next 90 years I would not attempt to predict.
            Ninety years ago, the postal accommodations at St. Andrews were very incomplete. Mails were few and far between. They came here very irregularly, an occasional mercantile craft or man-of-war bringing a batch of letters from the old world. Under these conditions can you wonder that the town was so long without a paper!
            Concerning the first paper Mr. Lawrence says:
            “The St. Andrews Herald was the property of a Company. Its editor, John Cochran, early retied and was succeeded by David Howe, brother of the Hon. Joseph Howe. In 1822, Peter Stubbs, a merchant of St. Andrews, purchased the Herald. His foreman was John H. Storey. In 1831 he sold it to his son John; the paper shortly after was discontinued. From 1820 to 1827 Mr. Stubbs was one of the member for Charlotte County. In 1832 he returned to Scotland, and died in 1840 in his 57th year.
            Mr. D. Russell Jack, editor of Acadiensis, to whom I am indebted for information, says that David Howe removed to Halifax, and is buried in the old historic graveyard there.
            A few copies of the Herald are still preserved. One of these, of date April 24, 1821, has been in my possession for several years. It was called the Saint Andrews Herald and Commercial Advertiser. This paper is No. 20, vol. II, which would make the first issue about October 29, 1819. It is a four-page paper, four columns to the page, the column measure being a little wider than that which now prevails. In length each page is 15 inches. Under the heading it is announced that the paper is “Printed and Published by Howe and Storey every Tuesday morning.” The subscription price is “15 shillings per annum.”
            At the head of the first column is the customary publisher’s announcement, as follows:
            “SAINT ANDREWS HERALD, Printed at No. 5, South side of the Market wharf, where Subscriptions, Communications, Advertisements, or Job Work of any kind will be thankfully received and promptly attended to.”
            “Communications and Orders for Printing of any kind, arriving through the Post Office, must be post-paid, otherwise they will not be attended to.”
            The early publisher did not consider it any part of his duty to mirror the doings of the townsfolk or to devote any part of his paper to chronicling local happenings. He had no editorial opinions on any subject or if he had he did not give expression to them. Indeed were it not for the few local advertisements the reader would scarcely know that there were any inhabitants in the town. it was regarded then as little short of impertinence to make mention of the movements of people, the only persons who were thought worthy of mention being some prominent official or some one of unusual importance. Today, the newspapers have reached the other extreme.
            The first page of this Herald of April 29, 1821, is largely taken up with a letter dealing with “a scheme to promote the rural economy of the Province.” The writer alludes to “the benevolent measures adopted by two of my townsmen who are erecting a Poor-house.” “The mode of farming the poor to the lowest bidder,” he tritely observes, “as adopted in this province, is not only rendering charity disgusting and abhorrent to its object but is also a radical evil, and alike offensive to humanity and to every principle of national policy. As the poor house building has the advantage of, I believe, at least 20 acres of good land attached to it, I am induced to lay before the public the following interesting extracts (here follows a lengthy report of the Alms House at Salem).
            The fourth column on the first page contained a mathematical proposition of some intricacy; an extract from the Baltimore Gazette referring to a contrivance to stop runaway horses; a clipping concerning the Royal Society, in which reference is made to the discovery of a volcano in the moon and a short paragraph on American Flour, which commodity was found to keep better in the W. India Stations than British flour.
            On page 2, there are several communications, A. Armstrong, deputy-treasurer for West Isles and Campobello, calls attention to the fact that “the duties received at West Isles and Campobello, for the year 1820, on articles entered for exportation, amounted to £10,810 shillings 3d.” A letter dealing with County Debt bears the signature of “A Superannuated Parish Pauper.” There is another letter on the same subject signed by “Brunswick.” “Philo,” of Deer Island, propounds an algebraic problem. The rest of this page is taken up with English and European news.
             Page 3 contains a description of the celebration of His Majesty’s birthday. I quote the following extracts:
            “Yesterday being appointed, (by Royal ordinance) for the celebration of the Birth of His Most Gracious Majesty, George IV., was kept here in a manner worthy of the occasion, and evincing in the highest degree, the loyalty and affection of the inhabitants of this part of His Majesty’s American domains. About half past 12, the troops of this depot, under the command of Captain Thomas Jones marched down King Street, and were drawn up in the Market Square, where they fired a feu de joie in honor of the day, with a regularity and precision we have seldom witnessed. The Militia Artillery Company, under Captain Hatch, with the two companies of the first Battalion Charlotte Militia under Major C. Campbell, commanded by Capts. Jack and McMaster, assembled at their usual parade ground and after performing several evolutions, proceeded to Water Street, and at 4 o’clock fired a royal salute in very good style; after which the music played up, and three loyal cheers were given until the hats of all present waved in the air. . . . The officers of the Militia, with Magistrates of the town, then repaired to McFarlan’s Hotel, where a celebration was provided. The festivities of the day were closed by a ball at McFarlan’s Hall, where the most respectable of both sexes were present. The room was handsomely decorated with festoons of evergreen, and in one part was placed the crown, and underneath, the well-known motto ‘Dieu et Mon Droit.’ The dancing continued to an earl hour, and all appeared to enjoy the scene, in the highest glee.”
            “His Majesty is now in the second year of his reign, and we trust he will long hold the scepter of the British realms, secure alike in the affections and loyalty of a free generous and brave people.”
            In another part of this paper appears the speeches at the prorogation of the legislature of Lower Canada. Earl Dalhousie, who prorogued the House, expressed “Regret that the expectations of His Majesty, which, by his command, I had the honour to express to you at the opening of the session, have not been realized. . . . I think it a duty which I owe to you and to your country, to call upon you to consider during this Summer, the result of the discussion in all its bearings. You will see the administration of the civil government left without any pecuniary means but what I shall advance uon my own personal responsibility; you will see individuals suffering under severe and unmerited hardships caused by the want of that constitutional authority that is necessary for the payment of the expenses of the Civil Government. You will see the interior improvements of the country nearly at a standstill; you will see, in short, the Executive government in a manner palsied and powerless. w/hen I shall again summon you to meet here in parliament you will come to decide the important question whether the government shall be restored to its constitutional energy, or whether you are to deplore the prospect of lasting misfortune by a continuance in the prsent state of things.”
            A gloomy picture this, but fortunately for the struggling colony, the threatened misfortune did not prove the “lasting” one that the noble Earl feared.
            The advertisements of the Herald of 1821 are not very numerous. Thomas Wyer, auctioneer, offers to lease two lots on the North East side of St. Andrews church. As deputy provincial treasurer, Thomas Wyer publishes a notice with respect to the payment of provincial bonds. Elisha Andrews, Sheriff, offers for sale John Craft’s farm in the parish of St. David. Thomas Sime asks all those indebted to him pay up and “save themselves the cost of a suite.” Benj. Carlow advertises a small kedge anchor picked up in Cookson’s cove. Thomas Johnson and Benjamin Byram announce that they will take possession of that large an commodious House at the head of the market wharf, commonly known by the name of Currier’s boarding house.” Margaret Crafts offers for sale a farm at Oak Bay. Jerome Alley, secretary of the Charlotte County Agricultural and emigrant Society, asks for tenders for the purchase of certain live stock. Henry Hutchings advertises cable, herring nets, etc which “will be sold low for cash or bartered for West India produce or Fish. The officers of the First Battalion Charlotte County Militia are informed that they an be supplied with very handsome caps, swords, belts, Plates, et., at less than sterling cost without charges, by applying to the Quarter Master. Colin Campbell, auctioneer, offers a saw and grist-mill and 400 acres of land on Digdeguash river, commonly called McFarlane’s Mills. James Boyd informs the person who passed a counterfeit dollar on “the subscriber’s apprentice” that “unless he supplies a good dollar and pays for the advertisement that his name will be made public. Harris Hatch, clerk of the peace, announces that “the assize of bread, set by a special Sessions of the Peace” is as follows: “The sixpenny wheaten loaf to weigh 2 lb. 11 oz., rye do. 3 lb. 14 oz., and other loaves in proportion. Hannah G. Goss, administratrix of the estate of John Goss, late of the Parish of St. George, publishes an estate notice. John Frick, St. Stephen, announces that he has received a license to act as auctioneer. Kelliher and Rankin advertise hay for sale.” Under the heading “Naval Intelligence” is recorded the arrival of the brig William Pitt, Capt. Mowatt, from Barbadoes, 22 days consigned to Andrews and Frye.
            There are no editorials. If the editors ever took “their pen in hand” it must have been to write letters to each other. The little local items, which form such an conspicuous feature of the present day newspaper, are entirely absent. There is no personal news. If there was any moving about from place to place it was done without the public knowing anything about it. Mrs. So and So’s bridge whist party, the meeting place of the sewing circle and such charming little functions that the modern editor has to keep tabs on. Not one of these little affairs is deemed worthy a place by the newspaper chronicler of 1821. There is not even a “pretty wedding” although I doubt not that there were pretty and winsome brides in those days as there are today. (conclusion next week)



History of Journalism in St. Andrews
Paper Read Before Canadian Lit. Club by R. E. Armstrong
Feb 10, 1910
(continued from last week)



A second copy of the St. Andrews Herald is before me, bearing date March 16, 1824. I note that in this number the name is changed to St. Andrews Herald and General Advertiser. Peter Stubs is now the editor and the price of the paper has been advanced to 16 shillings per annum. Mr. Stubs was a member of the Provincial Legislature and in the report of its doings his name frequently appears. In this report, allusion is made to the death of “His Honor Ward Chipman, the late President of the Province.”
            One of the bills under discussion was a road law. The Herald, commenting upon it, says: “The time does not yet seem to have arrived for the legislature to make a road law suitable to the different classes of the community.” The road committee of the legislature recommended 7000 £ “for the further improvement of the great roads of communication throughout the province.” From Fredericton to St. Andrews 700 £ was to be used, and from Saint John to St. Andrews, a like sum.
            A bill was read a first time “to provide for the permanent interment of the remains of the late Lieutenant Governor Smyth, within the walls of the Parish Church of Fredericton.” In a note the editor says that the lieutenant governor was buried within the walls of the Church at Fredericton by permission of the Church Wardens and Vestry (the rector being dead). A law of the province makes the interment of any corpse within the church walls illegal and the present bill si to legalize the interment in this instance.
            At this session 200 £ was granted for the St. Andrews Grammar School.



Among the items of news appears the following: “We understand that Chevalier Jouet, Esq., of St. Mary’s, in the County of York has been appointed by His Honor the President, Deputy Collector at West Isles, in place of R. E. Armstrong Esq., appointed Surveyor and Searcher of His Majesty’s Customs at Saint John, and that George Pigeon Bliss, Esquire, of Fredericton, has been appointed his Majesty’s Receiver General.”
            Local news was still an absent quantity in the weekly newspaper, but it is noticeable, that there is a slight growth in local advertising. One advertisement states that “one shilling per bushel will be paid for all good hardwood Ashes, delivered at Mr. Samuel Connick’s at Waweig.” James Parkinson advertises a Chemical Embrocation and Opodeldoc. Dr. McStay announces the receipt of a supply of fresh Vaccine Virus. He states that he will vaccinate adults and children at his shop on the Wednesday of each week, free of charge. Maxwell Rankin has a Sleigh to let. Samuel Watts advertises “Ladies real and Roan Morocco Dress and Walking Shoes, etc. Patrick Kelliher acquaints the public with the fact that he has fitted up a commodious sleight ot run between St. Andrews and Saint John. Colin Campbell, Thomas Wyer and John Wilson, commissioners of beacons, advertise for tenders for hemlock logs with which to erect a pier or beacon on the Sand Bar to the eastward of St. Andrews harbor. Thomas Bibbar announces that “the Lord Nelson Packet now sails regularly between St. Andrews and Eastport.” John Kimball, Eastport, advertises staples and domestic good. James Parkinson says he has for sale, “Rum, gin, brandy, port and white wine, gunpowder, tea, coffee, chocolate, stream loom shirtings, sheetings, shoes and boots, women’s shawls, men’s and boys’ morocco caps,” etc.
            Among the ads, is one announcing the “The Youth’s Instructor” will be published monthly at the Printing Office of the Saint John Courier and subscriptions will be received at St. Andrews by Mr. Miller, Madras School.
The Ven. Archdeacon Raymond, L. L. B., of St. Mary’s Church, Saint John, has very kindly furnished the following extracts from copies of the Herald in his possession:
(extract from St. Andrews Herald, Jan. 1824)
            “On the evening of the New Year the Scotch Church was opened. The front was brilliantly illuminated by wax lights tastefully arranged. Several appropriate selections of sacred music were executed and a great number of the most respectable people of both sexes were present. The outside of the church is finished in the Doric order: extreme height of steeple, 120 feet. Inside is executed in Ionian order. The gallery is supported by ten columns of the most beautiful bird’s eye maple. The pulpit and precentor’s box are of mahogany supported by six columns of the same in Doric and Ionian orders. In the rear of the pulpit is a Venetian window with four mahogany columns in the Ionic order. The ceiling is finished in ornamental stucco work, forming a large and handsome panel supported by an elliptic arch. the whole has been planned by and executed under the immediate and constant superintendence of Mr. Joseph Stevenson, and every part bears the most ample evidence of his skill, fidelity and attention. It is one fo the most neat and substantial places of public worship throughout British America. The Church and Manse will cost about $16,000 and by this the public may form some idea of the magnitude of the benefaction of C. Scott, Esq., who has thus generously made the most acceptable present to the disciples of the Church of Scotland and their descendants which man can offer; and for which his name will be held in grateful remembrance long after the edifices themselves shall have yielded to the relentless scythe of time.”
(St. Andrews Herald, July 1824)
            The commerce of this town ahs labored for some years past under great inconveniences for want of a Bank. To remedy this inconvenience we understand that Christopher Scott, Esq., has determined to establish a Bank himself and will appropriate £15,000 exclusively for that object. Until the establishment of the Bank at Eastport it was necessary to negotiate bills of exchange at Boston or New York and the returns in specie were uncertain and precarious. The business of the Bank at Eastport is, however, so limited that the merchants cannot realize funds with that dispatch and to that amount that the business of St. Andrews port requires.”



The St. Andrews Courant was the second paper published in St. Andrews. It made is appearance in 1831, Colin Campbell being the editor. He died in 1843.
            I have been unable to discover any copies of this paper. Mr. Clarence Ward, president of the New Brunswick Historical Society, has sent me the accompanying interesting reference to the Courant, copied from the Saint John Courier of January 7 1832:
            “St. Andrews Courant”—This paper, we understand, is now printed by three lads, the oldest eighteen years of age last Saturday (December 1831)—the others sixteen and twelve, without the aid of foreman, journeyman, or apprentice to conduct the mechanical part of the business—and it is a fact that they have struck off the paper at an earlier hours, and performed double the quantity of job work for the last five weeks, than has been done in the same time since the commencement of the paper, and while a practical printer was employed. They are all sons of the Editor, Colin Campbell, Esq. and neither of them ever saw a type set till the 19th of May last (1831)—The first number of the Courant having been printed on the 12th of that month. We mention this as being a novel circumstance, highly creditable to the genius and industry of the young men, and well worthy of imitation in other quarters.”—Courier January 7, 1832.”
             Mr. Ward says that Colin Campbell was the son of Colin Campbell, who came from Scotland to New Brunswick in 1748, with his wife and two sons, Colin and Alexander. Colin the younger was born in Glasgow on the 10th of May 1783. He was Sheriff of Charlotte County for a long period. Mrs. Samuel Hallett Whitlock of St. Stephen, was his daughter. Colin Campbell married a Miss Campbell, a sister of the last Postmaster Campbell. he died in St Andrews of Aug. 31, 1843. The three “printer boys” who assisted him on the Courant have long since passed away. John Campbell, father of Miss Annie Campbell, of this town, was one of them. The other two died at sea when quite young. A stone is erected in the Kirk yard to their memory.
The third paper to enter upon the field of journalism in St. Andrews was the Standard and Frontier Agricultural and Commercial Gazette. The last named high-sounding appellation was dropped in later years and it became known to the public as the Standard. It was established in 1833, Mr. George N. Smith being its first publisher. It has an unbroken and triumphal record of almost half a century. Mr. D. Russell Jack says it was probably one of the best New Brunswick papers of its day. The correctness of this observation I can fully endorse, it having been my privilege to inspect many of the earlier editions of the paper from the files now in possession of Mrs. Charles S. Everett, a grand-daughter of the first publisher. That its inception was not unattended with the tribulations incident to the early life of most papers is shown by the following circular which has fallen into my hands:
            St. Andrews, November 23rd, 1833
            “Sir—When I undertook to publish the Standard I found the press and materials in a situation, from which it was not thought advisable to remove them. That situation, however, will not suit for carrying on the work during the Winter, therefore a fit place has been selected in which the Establishment will in future be conducted. The removal has interrupted this day’s publication, for which your indulgence is most respectfully craved.”
            “The difficulties attendant on my new occupation are disappearing, and I not ony look confidently forward to regularity of publication, but an promise a series of original articles on the local concerns of this County, as well as the general affairs of the Province, which will be found to embrace those liberal views how so widely entertained.”
            “I am Sir,
                        Your most obedt. Servt.
                                    Geo. N. Smith”



Mr. George Smith, the first editor was a man of more than usual ability. In addition to his other accomplishments he was a land surveyor and an artist of repute. he was one of the surveyors who laid out the route for that brilliant but unfortunate project the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad. He retired from the newspaper in 1839 and removed to Saint John, the editorial mantle descending upon his son, Adam Smith, who was well qualified by education and attainments to carry on the work of his father. He maintained the paper at a high degree of perfection considering the business condition which prevailed in its later years, until 1880, when he retired from the activities of life, resting upon the laurels which he had so well won as the Nestor of the Press of the Province. He died thirteen years ago, leaving behind him many beautiful memories.
            The first issue of the Standard contains the announcement of the death in London on July 29, 1838, of Christopher Scott, whose name will ever be linked with the Presbyterian church of St. Andrews.
            A glimpse of the Standard file for 1840 shows that St. Andrews was a port of considerable importance. On the 1st day of January of that year, the paper states that there were ten square-rigged vessels, manned by 140 men, loading with deals and timber in the harbor, besides numerous smaller craft. The editor also remarks upon the weather conditions which prevailed that season. There was no snow until after Christmas, the temperature being almost summer-like.
             A copy of the Standard of Sept 12, 1877, has been handed me by a friend. The leading article, written in that trenchant manner which characterized Mr. Smith’s writings, refers to the 44th anniversary of the paper. I quote a few of the opening lines:
            “Last Monday, viz. on the 10th September, 1833, the Standard first appeared before the public and amid many discouragements has continued to the present date. Through all these long years the writer has been at his post “in summer’s heat and winter’s cold” with a exception of a short time at the beginning of the present year.”
            I have here copies of two Extras issued by the Standard. The first one bears date of June 9, 1836, and conveys the glad tidings of the granting of £10,000 by his Majesty’s government for the preliminary survey of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad. It as evidently an occasion of great rejoicing in the old town. But, ah me! what bitter disappointments were in store for the promoters of this brilliantly conceived scheme!
            The second “extra” bears date July 22nd, 1868, and was published in lieu ot the regular edition of the paper.
            [Extracts from the Standard files of 1869, with reference to the Saxby gale, which destroyed almost all of the wharves at this port, were here read.]
The Charlotte Gazette made its bow to the public on the 10th of June, 1846. The Standard bidding the new comer welcome, said: “It forms a respectable addition to the periodical literature of the Province.” The paper continued for a number of years. John McLachlan, a Scotchman, was its publisher. He died I am informed in 1854 or 1855. William Gibson, afterwards stationmaster at Woodstock, was foreman. Mr. McLachlan lived in a house which stood upon the stie of the present summer residence of Rev. H. Phipps Ross, immediately under the shadow of Chamcook mountain. This house was the scene of a tragedy, his housekeeper having been burned to death within its walls. After the tragedy McLachlan deserted the house and for years it stood along and abandoned upon the mountain side. It was alleged that on the anniversaries fo the woman’s death weird, uncanny noises would be heard proceeding from it. It got the reputation for being “a haunted house,” and as such it was known for man years. The house stood until Mr. James Townsend removed it to make room for the present stately building. With the removal the old housekeeper’s ghost seemed to have been effectually laid for nobody has seen or hear of any spooks in that locality since that time.
The Provincialist, published by Patrick Clinch, must have followed close upon the heels of the Gazette, though the years of its earthly pilgrimage I have been unable to obtain Mr. clinch was a son of Capt. Clinch, the original grantee of 7,700 acres in the town and parish of St. George. He was a man of importance—like most St. Andrews editors—and sat for a period in the Legislature of the Province. One old resident of the town told me that the Provincialist was published in a building opposite the Grimmer store. She said she went to a school upstairs in the same building, taught by a r. Peteson. When our present Sheriff was master of the Madras school in St. George in 1865 the old editor was living there with his son. One day the old man wandered int the woods and was lost for some time. Everybody quit work and went out to seek for the lost. After a long search he was found, deep in the forest. Though very weak he was not beyond cracking a joke with his finder. When the latter called out to his comrades that he had found him, the old man replied, in a thin, weak voice, “Yes, and it isn’t much of a gain you’ve got.” He died not long afterwards.
The Bay Pilot first saw the light of the day on the island of Grand Manan; the late John G. Lorimer was its publisher. This was in the year 1876. It was a bright little sheet containing considerable local news. But Grand Mana proved too msall for the venture and the paper and press were removed to St. Andrews, the plant being set up in a store on Water Street, adjoining the Bradford Hotel. On the 30th day of May, 1879, a company composed of John S. Magee, John Wren, Robert Robinson, W. D. Hartt and Robert Glenn, became proprietors of the paper. Mr. Magee was appointed editor and Mr. Wren manager. These are the only two of the company who are still living. The new proprietors removed the plant to the office on King Street, on the site occupied by the Andraeleo Hall, and owned by the late Harris Hatch. The paper was subsequently taken over by Mr. Magee, who bought out the owners. George Mitchell, now of the Woodstock Dispath, and the late Frank Howe were successively formen of the Bay Pilot. Bothe Mr. Lorimer and Mr Magee possessed considerable ability as editors. After severing his connection with the paper mr. Lorimer was appointed a messenger in the House of Commons at Ottawa. He coreesponded with a number of newspapers while there. He also compiled a bried history of the island which is frequently quoted. Mr. Magee sold hout his plant in 1889, and on the 21st day of March that year ceased publsication. In his “valedictory” Editor Magee concluded a very flattering reference to his successor by remarking: “The editor of the Bay Pilot, having steered his craft safely though the storms that sometimes beset here, until The Beacon is within measurable distance, cheerfully resigns his charge, with best wishes for the prosperity of the new craft.” Mr. Magee is now spending the evening of his life, with his son in Boston. He is in good health and takes an active interst in all that ig going on in this town.



Of the Beacon other hands than mine will have to write its history. Suffice it for me to say that it began publication in the Land Company’s building on May 2, 1889, and that up to the present moment it has never lost an issue, never failed to appear at the appointed time. It was the firt paper to introduce a steam power plant in St. Andrews. The Beacon was originally known at the St. Andrews Beacon, but as its horizon widened it adopted on the present title.
As showing the progress that has been made in the printing art in Charlotte County there is among the accumulations of the Beacon office, the remnant of an old Army press, which was used by Robert Grant, the first printer at St. George. It is a very primitive and yet a very effective machine, consisting of an iron bed 12 x 15 inches, with a conical funnel-shaped cylinder attached to the head of the bed. After the form had been “rolled” and the sheet attached to the tympan, this cylinder was then swung across the type, giving it the required impression. This press bears a patent date of July 29, 1856. This old St. George printer was evidently as peculiar as his press, judging by the inscription prepared by himself to be placed upon his tomb and which may be read by any one visiting the beautiful little cemetery at St. George:
            “Here after a life of much trouble rests in peace the body of Robert Grant, the first printer in St. George. An honest man, he was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1798, died here in 1869.”
            He saw whatever thou hast seen;
            He suffered all that troubles thou;
            He was whatever though has been;
            He is what though wilt be.
            “Reader, whatever may be thy feelings, circumstances or contemplations, though canst always safely say this also shall pass away.



In concluding this somewhat imperfect and rambling sketch of St. Andrews newspapers and editors, I would take this opportunity of expressing my thanks to Rev. Dr. W. O. Raymond, of Saint John; Mr. Clarence Ward, President of the New Brunswick Historical Society; Mr. D. R. Jack, Editor of the Acadiensis; Mr. John S. Magee, formerly editor of the Bay Pilot, Mrs. C. S. Everett and others who have assisted me by contributing information upon the matter in hand.
Engineer’s Report on Water. He Estimates it would cost 60,000 to pile the town from Harriet Street and provide 40 hydrants.