Old St. Andrews



History of the St. Andrews Railroad, By William Buck



July 1/1868
We intend to copy from the “Woodstock Acadian”—”An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec
Railway from its First Inception in 1835” compiled by our townsman W. M. Buck, C. E.


July 8/1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck
First Period. 1835 to 1845
On the fifth day of October in the year 1835 a meeting was convened of a number of the inhabitants fo the town of St. Andrews in this County of Charlotte, Province of New Brunswick, for the purpose of forming themselves into an Association under the appellation of the “St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Association,” having in view the desirable object of giving publicity to the practicability and desirability of constructing a Railroad between the town of St. Andrews and the city of Quebec in Lower Canada.
Being then convinced of the commercial importance of such an undertaking, by which a direct communication would be formed between Canada and the Lower Provinces, a conviction somewhat strengthened by the published opinion of an English writer, which appeared in the “United Service Journal” over the signature of Henry Fairburn, resolutions were proposed, and unanimously agreed on at this their first memorable meeting. They were to the following effect: That a railroad from Canada to the nearest winter port in New Brunswick viz. St. Andrews would be of great national importance to the interests of British North America, and its trade and commerce generally.
That the proposed route from St. Andrews to Quebec from all reliable information, is the best in all respects that can be projected.
That the trade arising from all sorts of merchandize and passengers, etc., would be commensurate to the cost of such an undertaking and would fully justify its construction.
That an Association be therefore organized by the following appointments: Hon. James Allanshaw, Chairman; Thomas Wyer, Deputy Chairman; Harris Hatch, John Wilson, James Rait, Samuel Frye, J. McMaster, Committee of Management; Adam Jack, Secretary and Treasurer. Fifty signatures, as members of the Association, were also obtained.
The article referred to has having appeared in the “United Service Journal,” from the pen of Mr. Henry Fairburn, set forth after showing that the prosperity of the Provinces in North American, was in a great measure dependent on the judicious introduction of the Railway system—first, a proposal to construct a railway from the port of Quebec to the harbor of St. Andrews, a distance of one hundred and ninety five miles (195), which would be the means of conveying the trade of the St. Lawrence, in a single day, to the waters of the Atlantic, thereby intercepting a circuitous navigation of one thousand two hundred (1,200) miles down the St. Lawrence, and thence round the shores of Nova Scotia, and thus ensuring to all commodities for export, a shorter and more speedy transportation, which would be attended with much greater regularity and much less risk; with the great additional advantage of having such a channel of communication open at all times throughout the year to an open winter port, whilst on the other hand the St. Lawrence navigation remains closed by ice between the months of November and May. The writer next asserted that, from the fact of this proposed line of railway passing through the lands, belonging to the Crown, that new fields would be opened to the industry of the lumbermen; that lands hitherto accessible, in the absence of inland navigation, would be reached and made fertile, and the barren wilderness become a source of increasing revenue.
The construction of this work would also furnish employment to a great number, and induce an emigration that otherwise would not be promoted, and that the land required for the use of the road, being granted by Government, a great saving would be effected in the cost of construction, which taking the estimates for railway in the United States, where the flat rail was then in use, need not exceed 5000 pounds per mile, or 980,000 pounds for the whole distance from St. Andrews to Quebec.
After certain preliminary proceedings of the Association were arranged, a deputation was next formed, consisting of Harris Hatch, John Wilson, and James Rait, who were deputed to lay before His Excellency, Sir Archibald Campbell, then Lieutenant Governor of the Province, the views and objects of the Association, and to solicit his sanction and patronage. The prayer of the petitioners solicited His Excellency’s approbation of the proposed work, and set forth the great advantages which would accrue to New Brunswick and Canada, in the facilities that would thus be afforded for the transportation of British and foreign commodities, and in opening up a highway for the development of the Internal resources of the country; an enterprise worthy of His Excellency, who in reply stated that he fully appreciated the zealous spirit of the enterprise which prompted such an undertaking, which could not fail to be highly beneficial to the British provinces, commercially and in many other respects, and which he would support as far as lay in his power, and to which he wished that undertaking much success and expressed his hope that he expectations of the Association would be fully realized.
The deputation was instructed to confer with the following gentlemen: His Honor the Chief Justice; the Honorable William F. Odell, Thomas Baillie, Judge Botford, G. F. Street, Joseph Cunard, George Shore, O. J. Peters, Charles Simonds, W. F. Owen, and E. N. Kendall, all of whom became members of the Association, and were subsequently formed into a Standing Committee.
It was next suggested to the Association that an exploratory survey of the proposed route should be made to ascertain the feasibility of the undertaking or any engineering difficulties that might be presented; which course being decided upon, a subscription was taken up for that purpose. Two Surveyors with a staff of assistants and camp equipage, were fitted out, and those in charge of the expedition were instructed to explore and ascertain the general configuration of the country and the different attitudes of prominent points above a common datum level
The two gentlemen appointed to conduct the survey were George N. Smith, and C. R. Hatheway; the former since deceased, was Editor of the St. Andrews Standard, the latter still survives and resides in St. Andrews. Their report upon the termination of their explorations, bears date January 30th, 1836, and was accompanied with an explanatory map. They stated that having commenced operations on the 29th October, 1835, and after encountering many unexpected obstacles they reached the “highlands,” then so called, on the border of Canada on the 29th December. They began their survey near the west branch of the Digdeguash river, and continued up this latter to White Beaver Brook, an outlet of the Digdeguash lakes; from this point onward the work was separated and reported on in sections. A general description on the course of the line explored in as follows:
Commencing on the Digdeguash, at a place previously mentioned, thence northerly across White Beaver Brook, and Stage Brook to the eastward of the 4th South Pitcombe Lake: on ? crossing it below the falls, thence along the eastern side, and through a pass west of the South Shogomoc Lake, and to the Eastward of the northern head of the Palfrey Mountains; thence across the North Shogomoc Stream, to the Howard Settlement, passing through this and running in a north easterly direction to the left of the Ox Box and Great Falls on the Eel River—crossing this stream below the Forks and keeping to the West of Oak Hill, proceeds north easterly to the Houlton and Woodstock Road, 2 ½ miles from the American Boundary; thence across the south branch of the Maduxnakis above the Forks, and across the north branch, then on a course nearly parallel to the Boundary line, and onward to the Presque Isle river, half a mile west of “Wheeler’s passing east of “Cronk’s,” west of “Miller’s,” and inclining nearly magnetic north to the eastward of Mars Hill; thence rounding this northern head of the hill in a course N. 10 degrees West, passing to the westward of Partridge Hill—to the Restook River, crossing immediately below the mouth of the Big Machias river; thence across a branch of the Machias, and passing about a mile to the southward of the hill called the “Twins;” thence north of Mount Saul, and through the valley of Caroline’s Lake to the northern side fo Beaver Brook to a summit level; thence down a valley to the Sueguacook river, crossing this stream, and continuing in a northerly course along the west side of the Forks; thence westerly to the crossing of the Allegash river about a mile below the first lake, from this point the course is nearly straight line at N. 70 degrees W to the Saint John river, when it strikes about 15 miles below the forks, and about 4 miles above the Islands; thence across the Saint John river, passing Grassy Lake, and onward to the South end of Muck Lake; thence inkling northerly to the north of Caribou Lake; thence through a ? dry barren to the southward of the Three Mountains and Spruce Mountain near the Canadian Boundary Lake.
The Report concluded by stating that on a review of the whole explored route, the surveyors did not hesitate to express their opinion that no obstructions existed that could impede the formation of a railroad, that a great portion of the lands through which they passed was fit for settlement and that they did not pass through any burnt districts.
The exploration was not continued further than Spruce Mountain by the New Brunswick party, as a previous reconnaissance had been made by Captain Yule of the Royal Engineers from Quebec to this port or vicinity.
At this period the whole of the exploration was then claimed as British territory, the northeastern boundary line of Maine being only defined from Monument Brook to Mars Hill, which later was the pivot or turning point of ? diplomacy as to the direction from thence on any point of the compass. It was not until the year 1842 that the boundary line question was finally settled by the Ashburton Treaty, by which unfortunate arrangement the ? was yielded to the United States, by combining the line from Mars Hill due north until it struck the river Saint John about three miles above the Grand Falls.
During the time occupied in carrying on this exploration survey the Association was busy at work canvassing public opinion and support in aid of the great enterprise of that ?, and issued a circular to ascertain the general opinion of the best informed men in the Province, in which the Association represented to the public the road from St. Andrews to Quebec as being preferable to any other brought to notice and claimed for that more special and mature consideration, taking it for granted that local prejudices would have ? interfere, but that natural views and considerations alone would determine the important question. It was further represented that the situation fo the town of St. Andrews was most favorable as a port for the receiving of imports from, and the shipping of exports to the West Indies, Europe, the United States and Nova Scotia; as a commercial port it could not be better situated and as a terminus for a railroad from Canada it had no rival. The serious attention and impartial deliberation of the public was therefore requested in confirmation of the proposed communication with Canada. This circular bore the signatures of Harris Hatch, James Wilson, James Rait, Samuel Frye, J. McMaster as a committee of Management with Adam Jack, acting as secretary.
Public opinion thus appealed to throughout the Province have a favorable verdict, and the Association flushed with success declared it expedient to consult the Government and people of Lower Canada, and for this purpose deputed Harris Hatch, John Wilson, James Rait and John McMaster, to proceed to Quebec early in December, and submit to the Governor General an abstract of all the proceedings of the Association. The Lieutenant Governor, Sir Archibald Campbell, had previously paved the way for the Deputation, with good intention, having previously introduced the subject to the Governor General, as well as to His Excellency Sir Colin Campbell, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, by whom Capt. Yule, of the Royal Engineers, before mentioned was instructed to afford his services to the Association. The result of the visit to Canada was, that in due course of time, both branches of the Legislature passed Resolutions approving the scheme, and affording every facility in meeting the views of the same body in New Brunswick and that as soon as the latter Legislature passed an Act to establish the proposed railroad, and grant facilities thereto, a similar Act should be passed by the Canadian Legislature. The Legislative Council also confirmed the resolutions of the Lower House.
The inhabitants of Quebec and Montreal also took a warm interest in the proposed undertaking and signed a petition to His Majesty for aid. The Boards of Trade of both those cities having been addressed by letter from the Deputation subsequently jointed the Association as members. The Deputation had stated to the Boards, in their letters, (Dec 14th) that on becoming members of their Association they sought for non pecuniary aid, and therein engaged to defray all preliminary expenses. The first assistance to be rendered would be in joining in a petition for such aid towards a commencement of the work as might appear reasonable. They would next be required to name some of their friends in London to be associated with the Hon. James Allanshaw and others to proceed to England for the above purpose and to bring the stock into market. The Deputation proposed by the writers were then James Allanshaw, Messrs. George Wyldes and Co., E. N. Kendall, and Messrs. Anthony Gibbs and Co.
The Quebec Board of Trade accepting the views and proposals of the visiting Deputation to their city, deputed Messrs. Andrew Patterson, George Pemberton and William Walter to act in concert with them during their stay, and nominated Alexander Gillespie Jr., Nathaniel Gould, and William Pemberton to associate with the proposed deputation to London.
The Montreal Board of Trade acted in a similar spirit of good will and appointed William Ritchie, J. W. Duescombe, and Harrison Stephen a subcommittee for the affairs of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Association, and nominated the same gentlemen in London as the Quebec Board had done, adding thereto the name of Henry Bliss, and G. B. Robinson, M. P., Chairman of the Lower Canada Land Company.
The Association ha now the approval and support of Lord Gosford the Governor General of British North America, the people of Lower Canada, and the two branches of its Legislature: of Sir Archibald Campbell, Lieutenant Governor of that Province, and of both branches of its Legislature, as also of both branches of the Legislature of Nova Scotia. The Resolution passed by the New Brunswick House of Assembly are in effect:
“That the construction of a railroad between the ports of Quebec and St. Andrews an open winter port, would facilitate travel and transportation of goods between the British possessions, would promote the settlement of the country, and induce emigration, and would give additional employment to British shipping. That for these reasons, and to facilitate the object of the Association, the House passed a Bill empowering a company to construct such railroad, the Canadian legislature to provide for he extension of the same to Quebec.”
“That an address be presented to the Lieutenant Governor that he will be pleased to transmit these resolutions to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, and to recommend the same to favorable consideration.”
the Nova Scotia legislature passed similar Resolutions and Messrs. Stewart, Smith and Chipman were appointed a Committee to wait upon the Lieut. Governor, and request the transmission of the resolutions to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
This much having been achieved the Association considered it advisable to present interviews more fully to the public than had yet been done, so that the benefits which would result from such an important undertaking would be better considered and appreciated, and thereby establish confidence in the investment of the necessary funds for its completion. It was therefore represented that as the St. Lawrence was then the only outlet from Canada, and that as it was frozen up for more than half the year it became evident that a railroad communication with the seaboard must be of immense utility and that the transportation of merchandise of all kinds would unquestionably be of a corresponding magnitude. There could be no limit to the amount of exports and imports more especially of those particular articles more required when the river navigation is closed, and are thus excluded from a market until late in the Spring of the year. The railroad would obviate all such difficulty and disadvantages, and would command the whole business of the country most certainly during one half of the year, and the chief portion of the transportation during the other; it would advance ? the communication with New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the west Indies, and the United Kingdom, which could not fail to advance the interest of all the Provinces, and contribute to the prosperity of the whole by increasing trade and the means of production to a great extent. If the work was not at once taken in hand with energy and promptitude, all the wealth and trade in store for such an enterprise would be ultimately diverted to other countries, with but little chance of recovery at a distant day.
Another important feature is the inestimable benefits that would accrue to Emigration, as regards comparative safety, comfort and celerity in travelling, without encountering any of the risks to which the navigation of the Gulf of St. Lawrence is frequently subject. It should also be considered that the internal resources of 200 miles of rich forest country would be thus opened, and in a great measure rendered more productive; the sale of the lumber lands would prove a large source of revenue, besides inducing settlements along the whole line; minerals were also to be found along the route; Lime, Gypsum and indications of Coal; there were also superior slate quarries. All kinds of timber were abundant, and no doubt Saw Mills would be erected on many of the streams possessing a ? water power; prodigious quantities of squared timber, boars and deals would be brought down for exportation, which would otherwise be locked up for ages. Taking an average quantity at 100,000 tons annually passing over the road, at 5 shillings per ton, this item would yield an income of $25,000 pounds, and taking the quantity of flour, grain and provisions at 110,000 barrels at 4 shillings per barrel, equal to 16,000, these two items would give a total of 41,000 pounds; in course of time this amount would no doubt be doubled, and if in this be added the West India and other imports with passengers, it would be more than treble. The actual amount of income could only be arrived at by inference, and enough was known of the value of the forest, and of Canadian production to justify the conclusion that the undertaking would be a safe investment of capital, which would bear a fair rate of interest after the road was in fair running operation.
The cost of construction was unknown, the length was supposed to be 250 miles, through a comparatively level country; but taking the estimates for some of the railways in the United States as a basis it was considered that one million pounds sterling would be sufficient, and should the Government make liberal grants in aid of the undertaking probably little more than half this amount would be ample.
Application had been made to his Majesty by petition for such aid; the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company had been incorporated by an Act of the legislature, with a capital of $750,000, divided into 30,000 shares at 25 pounds each with a similar act to be passed in Lower Canada, with a capital of 250,000 would make one millions pounds the full amount of the estimated expense. The following was then submitted:
Estimate of probably cost of constructing St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad:
Grading 250 miles at ? per mile – 312,000
Making the road and putting down rails for a single deck with turnouts etc. at 7,000 per mile 437,000
Whole estimated cost 750,000
The Association thought it safe to allows for contingencies in addition
The rate: 250,000
Total 1,000,000


. . .
The following is the schedule of the probably annual income on the proposed St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad as also submitted to the public by the Association:
Imports to Quebec
West India produce – 5,000
European manufactures and merchandize – 10,000
Passengers, averaging 150 per day, 250 days at 80s each – 15,600
Miscellaneous articles equal to 50,000 bbls. at 5s – 12,500
Emigrants, say – 5,000
Amount of Imports – 18,000


Exports from Quebec
Flour and provisions, say 110,000 bbls. at 5s per barrel – 16,500
Wheat, barley, oats etc. – 10,000
Staves, ashes, and miscellaneous articles, 10,000
Passengers as per contra, 15,600
Amount fro Exports 52,000
Amount from Imports 48,100
Total Imports and Exports – 100,200


To and from the Immediate Country
100,000 tons of deals, timber, boards and planks, at 7s 5d per ton – 37,500
Shingles, staves, saw logs, scantling and other dimension lumber – 7,500
Provisions, goods, passengers, etc., Settlers and Operators – 6,300
Probably Income – 151,500
Equal in sterling money to 134,667
Allowance for carrying mails, and other items not included in estimate.


The members of the association closed their appeal with an assurance that their advocacy for the proposed railway was the result of not only of the most careful attention they had been able to give to the consideration of the enterprise, but also of the integrity of their deliberate investigation and of their entire conviction.
During the month of January, 1836, Messrs. Allanshaw and jack proceeded to England as the first deputation from the Association to the British Government, bearing petitions from New Brunswick and Lower Canada, for ? to the road, and while there had an interview with the right Hon. Lord G. Cuelg, Secretary of State for the Colonies, and also a correspondence.
(to be continued)


July 15, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck, C. E.
First Period, 1835 to 1845


On March 12, resolutions moved by Alex. Steward, M. P., passed the Nova Scotia Legislature. A Committee waited upon His Excellency, who assured them he would have great pleasure in attending to the wishes of the House, and would forward the resolutions to Lord Glenelg by the packet then in port. These resolutions were similarly framed to those already mentioned.
At that particular period the question of the North Eastern Boundary line reMained unsettled, the decision on the King of the Netherlands, having been contrary to the spirit and intention of the Arbitration submitted to his judgment, had been quietly rejected by both parties, and the matter stood in an uncomfortable abeyance.
On the 15th April the deputation in England addressed a letter to Lord Glenelg enclosing the petitions, and vouched for the respectability of the signatures attached to each document; they also expressed the great anxiety that would prevail in the Provinces until the decision of Her Majesty’s Government was known. That the Legislature of New Brunswick had passed an Act incorporating the “The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company,” and that body was being then organized with the full expectation that the prayer of the petitions would be graciously complied with.
To that communication Lord Glenelg returned a reply on the 23rd, through his Secretary, and as follows:
“Gentlemen, I am directed by Lord Glenelg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th inst., with the petitions which accompanied it from New Brunswick and Lower Canada on the subject of the proposed railroad between Quebec and St. Andrews. Lord Glenelg desires me to state to you that he has laid these petitions before the King, who was pleased to received them very graciously, and to command that immediate measures should be taken for ascertaining to what extent it would be possible for His Majesty to promote the petitions’ object to which His Majesty attaches the highest importance.”
On the 27th April the deputation again addressed his Lordship and submitted documents embracing the estimated cost of the proposed road; and probably proceeds from traffic thereon (as on a former page) and other explanatory matter confirming the same. The attention of his Lordship was called to the importance of a survey on a more comprehensive scale than the previous exploration which was done at the expense of the Association.
“We would therefore suggest to your Lordship that a sum of money not exceeding ten thousand pounds be expended in this way, as a judicious exploration at the outset through a wilderness country will save some thousands in the end, and as this service cannot be completed in one season, it is of the utmost consequence that it should be commenced without delay.
“We should therefore propose that the sum of 250,000 pounds should be given as a bonus or special grant to the Company on the general principle long established in the Province in the distribution of a large part of its revenue, in the construction of roads and other internal improvements. The further sum of 500,000 to be invested in the stock of the Company; the dividends accruing thereon to be paid to His Majesty’s Receiver General as a part of the Casual Revenues, and the remaining 250,000 pounds it is proposed to being out in stock in the Canadas and New Brunswick.”
The next letter of the Delegates was addressed to Sir George Grey, Under Secretary of State, on the 5th May following, and is even now, an important record. Thus:
“We have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th inst., conveying to us the gratify information that our application for a sum of money not exceeding 10,000 pounds to be expended in the exploration and survey of the proposed line of Railway from St. Andrews to Quebec had been granted, and that the other propositions, submitted by us would receive the attention of Government so soon as the result of that survey was known. We cannot conclude this letter without expressing in our own, and in behalf of the petitioners, our sincere thanks to Lord Glenelg for the attention and promptitude manifested by his Lordship in bringing our mission for the present, to so speedy and satisfactory a termination.”
The Deputation arrived back from England June 9th.
As soon as the Association had received the gratifying intelligence from the delegates sent to London, a meeting was held June 10th, Thomas Wyer, Chairman, at which resolutions of thanks and congratulation were passed, and steps taken to commence a survey.
The Committee of management next deputed John Wilson, to proceed to Quebec for the purpose of making all necessary arrangements for the commencement of the survey at Quebec.
A report from that gentlemen was received by the Committee, dated August 11th, in which he stated that having arrived at Montreal on the 6th of July he conferred with the Standing Committee, who offered every assistance. Lord Oxford also expressed his high approbation of the proceedings in England, and repeated the offer of his services. After consulting with Capt. Yule of the Royal Engineers, to whom the survey was to be confided, but who had not then obtained his leave of absence from head quarters, Mr. Wilson immediately proceeded to Quebec, to make arrangements for the necessary supplies and camp equipage, for the surveying party, which would consist of about eighty men. Mr. Wilson also conferred with the Standing Committee at Quebec, who expressed their willingness to render necessary aid.
On the arrival of Captain Yule the greatest activity was displayed in completing the preliminary arrangements, and the surveying party commenced operations at Point Levi (opposite to Quebec) on the 24th day of July, and would continue the survey until they reached Mars Hill; the rest of the route would be undertaken by parties from other quarters, and all under the management of Capt. Yule. It afforded Mr. Wilson the highest satisfaction to state that Capt. Yule stood unrivalled in the Engineer Department, and all Departments of Government spoke in commendation of his practical knowledge and abilities in his profession. Capt. Yule intended to run the line up the river Etchemin to the Etchemin Lake, and through to the river St. John, the to Mars Hill, and thence to Woodstock and St. Andrews. Capt. Bailley of the Royal Engineers had made appellation to accompany the party as a Geologist and Mineralogist, but Capt. Yule was of opinion that the services of that gentlemen would be more desirable on the second survey. The party composing Capt. Yule’s general staff on the whole survey were: Lieut. Marhy, R. A., Ensign Hoste, 18th Regt., Ensign Chase, 32nd Regt., Col. Legendre, Provincial Surveyor, Messrs. Russell Playford, Allen, Wilkinson, Wightman, Grant, Wilson, Surveyors.
Capt. Yule decided to divide the whole distance of the proposed route into four districts, each to have two assistant surveyors under one Chief Surveyor. He would accompany the party from Quebec, and determine fixed points through which the line should pass: the surveyors for the 3rd and 4th districts would proceed from St. Andrews and work upward too Woodstock and Mars Hill, on account of the expense of moving so large a party from Quebec and if the country was not of too intricate a character, which was not expected, the survey would probably be completed in two months.
Many of the incidents of this survey during its progress, being of an interesting nature, Capt. Yule’s reportorial correspondence will be occasionally referred to. He was first heard from on the 9th August, from the encampment: he had been fortunate in his selection of Surveyors. Mr. Grant had accompanied him to Lake Etchemin; the country presented but few obstacles; Col. Legendre and Mr. Russell had joined him at the Lake, and Ensign Case afterwards. The chief difficulty encountered at the outset was with the class of people sent to carry the provisions and baggage through the woods; they were of the lazy agriculturalist type from the neighborhood of Quebec, to whom the service was quite new, and they would do nothing. The Captain had therefore to send back for an Indian reserve, not having time to get Canadians accustomed to the work. Messrs. Russell and Grant would survey as far as the Allegash by the end of September. The latter would report to the Committee during the absence of the Captain on his tour through the woods, where we shall leave him for the present, and revert to other proceedings.
Notice of the first installments from the Government towards the expenses of the survey was sent to the Acting committee, on the 10th August by the Hon. Thomas Bailie, Surveyor General, stating that a warrant would be prepared from the sum of 2000 pounds, to be paid to the Committee of the Quebec and St. Andrews Railroad Association, with a set of receipts to be signed by some person duly authorized by the Committee to receive the money, or by one of the Committee who had better come to Fredericton and arrange the business. Accordingly Thomas Wyer was sent for this purpose. In the meantime the Committee received information fo Government House dated 23rd August, stating that Sir Archibald Campbell had received letters from Capt. Yule, dated near the St. John, August 10th, that he gave a very flattering account of his progress that far, one fourth of the whole distance from Quebec to St. Andrews being, apparently a perfect level; he had been delayed some days by the unfitness of the men furnished to carry the provisions and baggage, and expressed much anxiety to know whether the rivers Allegash and Restook were navigable as high up as the line would pass; from the great advantage of having depots of provisions formed on these rivers in preference to Mars Hill, he had opened a good winter road to the river Saint John by which provisions would be easily conveyed from Quebec; and he expected to reach Mars Hill in 10 or 12 days from the date of his letter. Sir Archibald Campbell had ascertained from persons well informed as to the locality that Capt. Yule was sure to find both these rivers navigable for every purpose much higher than the railroad line would pass.
On the 27th August, Thomas Wyer reported to the Committee that on his arrival at Saint John he had forwarded provisions in the steamboat Novelty to Fredericton, thence to be conveyed in ?boats to Woodstock. That upon his arrival at Fredericton he went on to the receiver General’s office and obtained the two thousand pounds which be placed in the Bank and until his return from Mars Hill, whither he went, hoping to meet Capt. Yule. He had arranged with Mr. Connell for forwarding the provisions from Woodstock to the surveyors, and to attend to all future orders from them. On reaching Mars Hill on the 21st, he met Mr. Playford and his company coming into camp, but they had received no tidings of Capt. Yule; he then deemed it best to return, as he had to pay 20 shillings a day for the men and horses he had engaged. He met Mr. Allan and his party, half way between Woodstock and Fredericton, on their way to Mars Hill encampment, and on his arrival at Fredericton he learned that the Lieut. Governor had received dispatches (before mentioned) from Capt. Yule. He then brought down the two thousand pounds with him to St. Andrews and lodged the amount in the Charlotte County Bank.
The great anxiety fo the Committee respecting the precise geographical position of the Captain was happily relieved by the receipt of a letter from himself, dated Woodstock, Sept. 9. He had reached the Restook on the 1st, and Mars Hill on the 5th inst., and had fallen in with the gentlemen appointed to meet him there. The time occupied in reaching Lake Etchemin had been one month instead of 15 days; the provisions had filed, and he was therefore obliged to go to Madawaska as the readiest mode of obtaining a fresh supply.
On having the source of the river Saint John and Famine! (appropriate locality) he passed through a very favorable country. On reaching the Restook he left eight men with Col. Legendre to ascent the great Machias and cross over to the Aristigwam or Allegash river, while he proceeded to Mars Hill, accompanied by one Canadian and two Indians, and throwing himself on the resources he expected to find Mars Hill, in which he had not bee disappointed. From Quebec to lake Etchemin is 30 miles of cleared country, and 17 miles uncleared, explored and partly surveyed—47 miles. From Lake Etchemin to the south branch of Saint John river, 33 miles. Total of the route decided on—80 miles.
By the end of the month the whole distance from Quebec to near Woodstock would be connected by measures lines, and the portions remaining to be levelled would be in the hands of the Surveyors. Mr. Allen had accompanied him from Mars Hill, and would forward provisions to Col. Legendre’s party, without which their operations would be stopped.
The Committee next received tiding from Mr. Jacob Allan, who was then on the route 26 miles below, or south of Mars Hill. He stated that Mr. Wilkinson had received orders from the ? to proceed up the Restook and make a survey of that river; Mr. Playford was to commence south of Mars Hill and extend his survey and levels until he intersected a base line; Mr. Wilson was extending from Mars Hill to the Restook in a course N. 76 degrees West, which line was followed by Mr. Wightman taking levels. On Capt. Yule’s return from Fredericton whither he had then gone, Mr. Allan was to explore line with him from Woodstock to Mars Hill and join in to Playford’s line and so on. Regarding the provisions and gauging them to the different depots, there should be no time lost in having some person appointed to attend to that service; 2000 lbs. weight must be sent to Madawaska to supply 20 men in that quarter. From the very low state of the river Saint John, it was a very difficult to get boats up, and the provisions had be forwarded on wagons, which much increased the expense. There were then ten? Parties surveying which would average 80 men daily decides the expense of getting the provisions on the spot. Captain Yule and he had made a calculation of expense, which including the Canadian parties would average about one thousand pounds per month; but after they got the provisions up the ground, and with a favorable season, they trusted that their reports would gladden the hearts of all who took a lively interest in the work. Mr. Allan testifies that never could there have been a more competent person appointed to be Chief of their staff that Capt. Yule, whose very appearance denoted his great and good qualities.
As the month of December approached the survey was drawing to a close, during which no accidents have been recorded; yet one death occurred which caused much regret among the staff; Ensign Hoste of the 18th Regt. Took sick of malignant typhus fever and died at Woodstock.
Capt. Yule in his letter of December 5th to the Committee said it would not be necessary for him to delay his departure for St. Andrews; the plans would be sent after him to St. Andrews, where he would have to await the other plans from different sections. Lord Gosford had received a letter from Sir Archibald Campbell respecting the application of the Committee for Capt. Yule’s being permitted to go to England, and his Lordship had made the necessary reference to the Lieutenant Governor Commanding the ?
(to be continued)


July 22, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck
First Period. 1835 to 1845
Part Three
The following is a copy of the letter, from ? Gosford to Sir Archibald Campbell, relative to Capt. Yule’s leave of absence:
Castle St. Louis, Dec. 26, 1836
“Sir, I had the honor of receiving your Excellency’s letter of the 12th ult., sometime previous to Capt. Yule’s arrival at Quebec. I entirely concur in opinion with you that it is highly desirable that Capt. Yule should accompany some of the gentlemen interested in the contemplated railroad between Quebec and St. Andrews to England as the best means of affording every explanation which may be required towards promoting this object, and I beg to inform you and the gentlemen of the Association that Capt. Yule has obtained the permission which you solicited, and will proceed to England without delay.”
Capt. Yule having arrived at St. Andrews, notified the Committee, Feb. 4, 1837, that he would be ready to meet them at any convenient period, to enter upon the business of the Railway survey.
At a subsequent meeting of the Association, held on the 11th March, John McMaster and
James Rait were appointed a deputation to proceed to England in conjunction with Capt. Yule, and present the Petition of the Association to Lord Glenelg.
Meanwhile the Committee also presented an address to Sir Francis B. head, Lieut. Governor of Upper Canada, which described the position of their affairs, and solicited the countenance and support of His Excellency, and to which the following comprehensive reply was returned though the private Secretary:
Upper Canada Government House, Toronto, March 10, 1837
“Gentlemen, I am commanded by His Excellency the Lieut. Governor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 15th ult. His Excellency conceives that the public support he is now giving in this province to various measures for facilitating the intercourse of the inhabitants of the North American Provinces will sufficiently testify the interest he must feel in the successful construction of the railroad from St. Andrews in New Brunswick to Quebec.”
The duties of the Acting Committee were evidently increasing at this period, for they likewise addressed Sir John Colburne, then Administrator of the Government at Canada, on the subject of Capt. Yule’s survey, their letter bearing date 27th Feb., to which Sir John replied on the 5th April, informing them that with respect to his opinion of the importance of the projected railroad from St. Andrews to Quebec, he felt fully persuaded that the interests of the North American Provinces would be greatly advanced by opening a direct and rapid communication from Quebec to St. Andrews, a port which he understood was accessible at all seasons; and he would have great satisfaction in submitting for the General Commanding in Chief and His Majesty’s Government, copies of the Report and Survey which Capt. Yule had been authorized to complete, whenever he cold procure them. Of the deputation sent to England, Mr. McMaster, who left on the 24th march, via New York, was the first to arrive, and on the 1st [section missing here – get photocopy]
“. . . and I am further to apprise you that as the Legislature and Government of the State of Maine have strongly protested against a prosecution of the undertaking, as involving an infringement of the existing stipulation respecting the disputed territory, Her Majesty’s Government have felt themselves compelled, however reluctantly to instruct the Governors of Lower Canada and New Brunswick to prevent any further proceedings within the disputed territory until measures shall have been taken by friendly communication with the United States for removing the objections of the government of the State of Maine.”
The receipt of the foregoing was followed by an official announcement from the Lieut. Gov. of New Brunswick in his own handwriting and addressed to the Secretary of the Association as follows:
Government House, Fredericton, June 24th, 1867 [sic – must be 1837]
“Sir, I have received the commands of His Majesty’s (?) Government in consequence of a representation from that of the United States peremptorily to prohibit any further proceedings on the part of the Association for the construction of a railroad betwixt St. Andrews and Quebec within the limits of the territory in dispute betwixt the acknowledged limits of the province, and the North East Frontier of the State of Maine, until the points in dispute shall have been finally settled and determined betwixt the two Governments, or until further instructions may be conveyed to the Association upon the subject. I request you to lose no time in conveying the comments of this communication to the knowledge of the members of the Association or of the Committee of Management, and in acknowledging its receipt. – J. Harvey, Lieut. Governor
This intelligence, thus twice told, could not fail to create the greatest disappointment that could possibly be experienced by the indefatigable projectors of this great undertaking, that was full of such fair promise, and inspired the hope—now deferred—to all within the Provinces proposed to be connected by this iron link of commercial prosperity. Doubtless, from the months, and in the minds of a multitude of interested provincialists, the government of the neighboring republic received at that day its full meed of manifold blessings, in an inverse, ratio; but like oil upon the troubled waters, there came a kindly letter to the Committee, expressing graceful sympathy, from the pioneer of the last exploratory survey, who could not but share in the general disappointment yet nevertheless conveyed a hope regarding the resumption of the work at a future day. Captain Yule wrote in the following manner from London on the 27th November:
“Gentlemen, the decision of Government respecting the proposed railway will have been made known to you before I heard of it. It was not until the 10th inst., an application being made at the Colonial Office by the Master General of the Ordinance, as to the probably time that I might be expected to return to my duty in the Corps of Engineers, that, in reply, it was stated that the project of the railway was postponed. I need scarcely observe that being so well aware of the interest you all took in the success of such an important work as this would have been, if completed, I sympathize with you in the disappointment which you must have felt in the present result; but I sincerely trust that it is not a final one, and that on a future and not very remote day, I may be able to congratulate you on the project being resumed.”
Of the proceedings in England during the visit of the Deputation, a detailed account is contained in the Report of John McMasters, to the Association. He therein stated that he did not deem it advisable to communicate with the Colonial Office until the arrival of Mr. Rait and Captain Yule, or either of them. That after waiting in London for three weeks without either of those gentlemen having arrived, he resolved to address a note to Lord Glenelg on the 5th June, requesting the honor an interview. His Lordship appointd the 7th. He accordingly presented himself and the documents of the Association. His Lordship put the following questions to him, viz., 1. Are all parts of the Province in favor of the contemplated railroad? 2. Does the line explored by Captain Yule run through the disputed territory, and to what extent? 3. Has Capt. Yule surveyed the whole extent? 4. What is the object of your present visit?
All of which Mr. McMaster answered when his Lordship observed that he would examine the papers, and when he obtained the views of Capt. Yule, Mr. McMaster would again hear from him.
Capt. Yule had just arrived from Scotland (!) and had an interview with Lord Glenelg on the 8th, when he presented his Report on the Exploratory Survey. Mr. McMaster (his colleague not having yet arrived) on the 30th June again addressed Lord Glenelg, reminding his Lordship of his protracted stay awaiting the decision of government. In reply Mr. McMaster receive the letter of 3rd July, before given; he then left England and arrived at St. Andrews Aug.24th.
Further proceedings on the part of the Association were now held in abeyance on account of the unsettled question fo the North Eastern boundary Line between Maine and New Brunswick.
During the month of August, 1838, the Association endeavoured to revive the project by presenting to the Governor General of Canada through Sir John Harvey, Lieut. Governor of New Brunswick, a statement of the position of their affairs. The Lieut. Governor replied to the Committee, through his private secretary, to the effect that he was duly impressed with the great importance and advantages to these several provinces of the projected railroad from Quebec to St. Andrews, and fully concurred in the propriety of inviting the attention fo the Governor General to that for the advancement of which the Governor General’s powerful aid would no doubt be required; but he regretted that he could not agree with the opinion of the committee that it was then a proper moment for renewing the question with the Government of the United States; nevertheless, on such a point the Governor General would be the best judge.
This was about the last act of the Committee, the winding up of their important duties, for a long period of seven years, fraught with anxiety and tedious suspense, until the year 1845, which brought with it new hopes and aspirations; more aid and support, but yet Quebec was far away in the distance, the great goal to be reached.

July 29, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835.
By W. M. Buck
Second Period – 1845 to 1850


The year 1845 was the memorable period of the Great Railway mania and commercial panic throughout England, and was the first year of the reign of his speculative majesty, the railway “King Hudson.” No wonder then that the British provinces were subject to incipient symptoms of the same malady.
The North Eastern Boundary of Maine had been “surrendered” by the Ashburton treaty of 1812, previously mentioned, and the way to Quebec became more narrowly pointed than before. The Committee of Management of the Association were reorganized, and again buckled on their armor. On the 8th October, 1845, a meeting was held, and it was resolved that C. Stainback, of London, be requested to act as a Delegate to wait upon Lord Stanley (now Colonial Secretary) at the Colonial Office, and present a communication from the Association in furtherance of the general interests of he proposed undertaking, and that he be furnished with the necessary documents appertaining thereto.
It was further resolved that a deputation be appointed to proceed to Saint John to confer with influential men there for the purpose of forming some plan of Union that would tend to forward the construction of a railway from the Grand Falls of the river Saint John, to St. Andrews and the city of Saint John, and to extend a branch to Fredericton if expedient, at the same time keeping a view a continuation to Quebec.
The Hon. Harris Hatch and John Wilson, were appointed a Deputation to proceed to Saint John with full power to act in accordance with the objects of the Association.
A special Committee Meeting of the Saint John Chamber of Commerce was held on the 24th October following, at which there were present the Hon. John Robertson, president; John Duncan, Vice president; A. Summers, John Wishart, R. Jardine, William A?, W. H. Street, R. Payne, M. P. P.’s, Committee, J. Woodward, Secretary.
Hon. Harris Hatch and John Wilson attended and were introduced; they presented the resolutions of the Association, and ? heard in further explanation; and having learned the views of the president and some of the members they withdrew. Whereupon resolutions were passed thanking the Deputation for the information they had imparted regarding the different railroad projects. And that the general interests of the stock holders and capitalists should be considered as the paramount object in proposing a line to any quarter; eligible lines for the general good would necessarily command the most attention and consideration regardless of local interests.
A Deputation also waited upon the Quebec Board of Trade, and a meeting was held in the room of the Board. Documents were submitted, and all necessary explanations given Mr. Andrew Patterson; one of the Standing Committee (in 1837), addressed the meeting and assured those present that the most lively feeling existed in Quebec towards the undertaking. The whole of the proceedings were of a very satisfactory character, and resolutions were passed by the Board expressive of a hearty concurrence.
Matters were now reaching an important crisis with the Association, as the ? of their proposed railway scheme ? an opposition by the furtherance of other proposed offspring routes for a similar connection? And created for a while a sensational ? among the projectors of the parent line. Whereupon a public meeting was to be held in the town hall of St. Andrews, to which Hon. Capt. Owen, Capt. J. Robinson, r. Jas. Brown, M. P. P., Jas. Boyd, M. P. P., George S. Hill, M. P. P., Robt. Thompson, M. P. P., (Charlotte County members) were invited to attend. Hon. Capt. Owens, R. N., presided, and explained the object for which the meeting had been convened, and submitted his views on the subject. The “business” is copied in full as follows:
“Moved by Hon. Harris Hatch, seconded by Capt. Robinson, whereas several new routes for a railway from Canada to Atlantic waters have been devised since the original one from Quebec to St. Andrews was projected, and are now canvassed in a spirit of opposition and rivalry, and whereas the line terminating at St. Andrews is far the shortest and possessed the greatest facilities for commercial communication, and can be constructed at much less expense, as fully ascertained by the surveys made in 1836 and 1837 by directions of Government, therefore:
“Resolved, that in opinion of this meeting every possible exertion should be made to forward operations for commencement of the railway from St. Andrews to the province as authorized by the Law passed for that purpose in 1936.”
“Moved by Hon. Thomas Wyer, seconded by Jas. Boyd, M. P. P., Resolved, As the sense of this meeting, that the objections raised against the terminus of the Railway being at St. Andrews, on account of the proximity of the line to a foreign state, is without foundation inasmuch as all the routes will be equally exposed at points where they will be most vulnerable, and that it can in non way affect the general utility of the enterprise.”
“Moved by Wellington Hatch, seconded by Henry Frye, that the Acting Committee of the St. Andrews and Quebec railroad Association be requested to use every possible exertion to forward the undertaking.”
“Moved by John Wilson, seconded by George D. Street, that a subscription be opened for the taking of stock, and that exertions be made to induce persons here and elsewhere to become stockholders in the undertaking; and further resolved that committee be named in the several towns of the County to solicit subscriptions for the stock.” – J. H. Whitlock, Secretary
(to be continued)


Aug 5, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck
Second Period. 1835 to 1845


During this year the subject of Intercolonial Railroads had been fully discussed by the provincial press, more especially by that of Halifax, which strenuously advocated a line from Halifax to Quebec by an eastern and northern shore route, while the Saint John press as firmly supported a line from that city to Quebec. Saint John had now entirely ignored St. Andrews as a terminus, and the “Courier” did not reiterate its former opinion of 1836. A prospectus was issued of a railroad from Saint John to Fredericton, to connect at this latter place with one from the Grand falls; the line to be extended by steamboat via Annapolis (the present route) to Halifax.
The chief competitive scheme, however to the St. Andrews and Quebec, was the Halifax and Quebec or “Great Northern American Railway,” of which a brief notice may be here considered as a necessary episode.
During the month of August, His Excellency the Lieut. Governor of New Brunswick, received communications from the British Government respecting the construction of a railroad from Halifax to Quebec for the purpose of carrying the troops and mails. It was also rumored that there were capitalists in England who would invest money in provincial railroads, if the security was satisfactory.
The Saint John Courier of August 30th next informed the public that the Provisional Committee in London of the “Great Northern American Railway,” had issued a second prospectus. The Company had changed their title to the “Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Canada Railway and Land Company,” and had increased their capital to Three Million. The Company only proposed a line from Halifax to Quebec, connecting these ports by passing through, or by, Saint John and Fredericton along the river valley. The Company also proposed to combine the settlement of this country with the progress of the railroad, by pre-empting purchase of blocks of land of 20,000 acres at each station, which when cleared and improve under the direction fo the Company, would combine to encourage settlement and production, and ensure the road of a large return.
Despite the efforts made in England by this Company for the advancement of their rival project, the acting committee of the St. Andrews and Quebec Association worked away with all the greater energy and stronger will for their own original scheme. John Wilson, brought this enterprise again before the public through the medium of a letter, which appeared in the “Standard” of October 8, intended chiefly for the information of British Capitalists, who would, no doubt, wish for the most economical, shortest and best route to open the Canadas with the Atlantic Ocean and England. A glance at the map would show the geographical advantages which the St. Andrews line possessed over that proposed from Halifax; the distance from St. Andrews to Quebec by survey, being 275 miles, whilst from Halifax to Quebec would be 550 miles. The former line had been most favorably reported on by Major Yule, the maximum grade not exceeding 10? Feet per mile; the country produced fine groves of yellow and red pine; the lands were excellent for the Emigrant and farmer. The extra time in ? from Liverpool to St. Andrews would be only 8 to 12 hours, over that to Halifax. St. Andrews possessed a harbor accessible at all seasons of the year, and was more favorably situated for direct intercourse with the British West Indies than any other port in the Provinces. These facts alone should engage the attention fo the British Government and capitalists.
The Quebec Gazette in noticing the rival project from Halifax to Quebec was f opinion that the magnitude of the undertaking would ? in a belief in its success. It was however as an improved military communication between Great Britain and Canada, and a commercial connection during the winter when the St. Lawrence was sealed up, that the contemplated railroad would be of national advantage.
But Great Britain also required a safer and cheaper mode of export than by the St. Lawrence when it was open, which if not accomplished would render a great portion . . . Canada to come and go through American exports. . . . The New York Albion likewise contained a ? of the projected lines to Quebec, and . . .
“it is impossible for us with our present in? to recommend any particular route. Three towns are claiming the honor of opening a road from the Atlantic to Quebec, and thus establishing a direct communication with England. Halifax, Saint John and St. Andrews possess their several advantages. The Halifax is the longest road, being nearly six hundred miles; but then it will lay open and render accessible to the settler a proportionately greater tract of country which is a consideration of great importance for the success of either of the projects must ultimately depend on the extent of territory rendered accessible, and the increased travelling and transportation of produce that is to be created by the construction of these great works.”
We next make extracts from an excellent letter of the subject of routes addressed to Editor of the New York Albion, by “an Old Subscriber,” which was, no doubt, from the able pen of the late D. Samuel Frye, St. Andrews, in reply to an article on “Colonial Railroads,” which appeared in the Albion of the 11th October:
“It is true that on a first or superficial view the route from Halifax has a prepossessing aspect, but when the great length is taken into consideration, and also the fact that it must pass through the interior at a great distance from seaports of favorable outlets for shipment it becomes self evident that the utility of the railway will diminish in exact proportion to its extent, and independent of its greater outlay, that the capital must be unproductive from the remoteness of the places intended to be brought into direct communication and the want of liberal support. This need ? by saying that there are certain and defined limits of expense beyond which mot goods will not admit of transportation.”
“On the other hand the line from Quebec to St. Andrews will not only connect these places by the shortest possible routes, but can be extended to the city of Saint John; it may also connect Fredericton, and every other point that may be desirable, especially a junction with the proposed railway from Boston via Portland, Bangor, and Calais, could be effected at a trifling cost, thereby completing the communication from Boston to St. Andrews, Saint John and Halifax, and very materially enhancing the value of capital invested, and the generality of the undertaking.”
“In the selection of a route for he contemplated railway, all local feelings and interests should give way to public good, and every care taken to ? the one that will hereafter be least exposed to rival competition.”
At this time there was a vast amount of editorial correspondence and discussion in the provincial papers in advocacy of the different private ? “Scrutator” appears to have been the Nova Scotia champion for the Halifax and Quebec scheme, and endeavored to write down St. Andrews as a railway terminus but “An old Subscriber” again came to the front and met “Scrutator” at the point of the pen:
“The terminus of St. Andrews is not contended for in opposition to Halifax. Far from it. Its position alone give it claims that are contended for as being adapted to secure a greater portion of Canadian trade than any other one that can be found. It is the nearest open winter port on Atlantic waters that can be reached from Canada within British limits, and passes through a country—at least that portion from Woodstock to St. Andrews—better adapted for a track than any that can be selected elsewhere, if the testimony of surveyors can be trusted.”
“If, then, St. Andrews by natural position, is the nearest practicable terminus for communication with Canada, and the Railway can be constructed with less cost—nearly one half of that to Halifax—it would seem that it was entitled to some degree of consideration.”
“That the Halifax route possesses many features in a military and natural aspect worthy of consideration, no question can be entertained: whether it will pay adequate interest for the investments however may be problematical, as its great extent must necessarily limit its commercial utility to the trade of Canada, the very first vitally important object to be attained, but which by some strange fatality, has been either too much overlooked or intentionally avoided in all the notices of the magnificent scheme hitherto submitted to the public.”

Aug 12, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck
Second Period. 1835 to 1845


During the month of December (1845) a subscription list was opened, the subscribers promising to take the number of shares set opposite to each name, and promising to pay the several calls when required, as directed by the Act of Incorporation, passed 8th March, 1836. The capital stock of the Company being 750,000 pounds, divided into 30,000 shares of 15 pounds each, the calls to be not less than four percent and not to exceed ten per cent, of the amount of stock of each shareholder, and no installments to be called for until ten thousand shall have been actually subscribed for, and not before.
The stock list for the Province, and Parish of St. Andrews comprised 36 names representing 1300 shares and 12,500 capital. In the month of January, 1816, a similar subscription list was opened at St. Stephen and comprised 22 names representing 375 shares, amounting to 9,375 pounds.
Thss stock was taken on the express condition that no subscriber should be liable for any greater amount than he signed for opposite to his name. 11,875 had thus been subscribed for in the County of Charlotte alone, but we shall see bye and bye how much of this pretentious amount had been actually paid up.
With the commencement of the year, the Committee of Management issued a prospectus to the public which contained the original appeal of 1835, also the Resolutions of the Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick Legislatures, and the petition to his Majesty for aid, together with a second address to the public which, however contained no new points in particular, with the exception of the following argument:
“The principal objection raised against this line in its proximity to the American boundary, being thereby rendered, in the event of a war, liable to be impeded by hostile invasion. Although this sate of events is not to be guarded against, it should be recollected that even the one from Halifax will be subject to the same peril, should it be an object with the enemy, as a large portion of it will be equally exposed, and that at a point where it will be most valuable.”
“it should always be kept in mind that Railways are best adapted to promote peace and civilization, and therefore that the argument of contiguity is greatly in favor of he St. Andrews line, instead of having any actual weight against it, as it would be me and intersected by one from the American side, which would materially increase its utility, and enhance the value of its stock, and at the same time add to its safety in the event of hostilities, by influencing restraint in self defense.”
The Committee heard from Mr. C. Stainbank of London, who had been appointed the Delegate to act therefore the Association. On the 3d of February he forwarded minutes of an interview with Mr. Gladstone at the Colonial office, who had drawn up sundry regulations to be observed by Colonists regarding railroads and it was the intention of the Government to send a dispatch to each Colony embracing these regulations, and accompanied by all the information they possessed. The English Railway act would also be sent with it. It was Mr. Gladstone’s wish that the Colonists should be left as much as possible to themselves in the railway enterprises. On being asked if competing lines would be sanctioned Mr. Gladstone observed that point would be ? the Governor and the Legislature of the Province, and that it would be very unwise . . . for any Colony to pursue. The Home Government, however would not interfere in business of an important nature was enacted during the year by the Association by the 25th of November, on which a general meeting of the stockholders took place at St. Andrews pursuant to previous public notice for the first time, a Board of Directors. Hon. Harris Hatch was called to the chair and J. H. Whitlock, appointed Secretary. The following gentlemen were elected Directors of the Company: Captain Owen, Hon. H. Hatch, Samuel Frye, John Wilson, D. S. ?, William Porter (St. Stephen), Robert ?, G. F. Campbell, John Rodgers, ? Andrews, Chas. Connell, Chas. Perley, ? McCann, Thomas Pickard, of Woodstock.
On the 28th there was a meeting of Directors at the Railroad ? when a resolution was passed that Directors, residing at a distance should be notified of their appointments, so that a general meeting of Directors would be held on the 12th December for the purpose of choosing a Chairman, for enacting Bye Laws and for the transaction of other business.
A meeting had been held on the 16th of November of persons interested in the railway at which a subscription list was opened and the sum of 6,350 signed for. A larger amount of stock, it was thought, would be taken while this enterprise obtained greater notoriety in that section of the country, and a general conviction created that the work would be carried through. The stock had bee subscribed for with the express understanding that no part of it was to be called for until a sufficient amount had been taken up in the Province, or elsewhere, as would ensure the completion of the work. W. Wilson acted as the Woodstock corresponding Secretary.
The meeting of the 25th, at St. Andrews, before mentioned, was attended by a number of gentlemen from the United States who expressed themselves satisfied that the undertaking was not only feasible, but would prove profitable to the stockholders. Subscription lists would therefore be opened at Eastport and Calais, and the directors were full of hope that with a subscription list amounting to 60,000 pounds, of which 20,000 would probably be collected in Carleton County, they could ? present themselves before English capitalists, with a fair prospect of having taken up there the additional sum that would be required. The Directors had come to the conclusion not to attempt the commencement of the work until stock to the amount of 100,000 had been subscribed, with this sum, and government aid, they anticipated being able to build the road to Woodstock, and provide the necessary rolling stock (!). It was also decided by the Directors that no paid officer should be appointed until the work of construction actually commenced.
At the general meeting of Directors appointed for the 13th of December, but held on the 15th, John Wilson was elected to be Chairman or President of the Company. The Directors at a subsequent meeting, held on the 17th March, 1847, Resolved that Capt. J. Robinson, R. N., and Moses H. Perley, of Saint John, be appointed joint Agents of the Company to proceed to England to effect a loan from Her Majesty’s Government, or from individuals, to the extent of 300,000 pounds, upon the security of the Company payable in a term of years with interest, and also to dispose of shares to the amount of 300,000 currency, and to issue scrip therefore on a deposit of 10 percent being paid; also to assign to the purchasers of shares in England the Provincial guarantee of 5 percent to the extent of 10,000 currency. G. F. Campbell Acting Secretary.
M. H. Perley, having been written to on the subject of his mission to England, and the terms upon which he would proceed thither, replied to the Board on the 18th, stating that he would give his services for the sum of two hundred pounds currency, and if he succeeded in accomplishing the sale of shares, or raiding a loan of 100,000, the Company were to pay him an additional sum of two hundred pounds, and should the sum of 100,000 be raised in England, he would expect a further sum of one hundred pounds. Upon these terms his services were accepted by the Board of Directors.
Messrs. Robinson and Perley took their departure for England early in April, and on the 3rd May reported progress. They had been constant communication with various parties, and but for the extraordinary and unprecedented state of the money market they would have had a very satisfactory account to give of their stewardship. The Facility Bill had been referred to the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners, who had reported favorably, and Earl Grey had informed the Agent that he therefore saw no objection to the royal assent being given to the Bill. His Lordship however and the Government repudiated all idea of assisting Colonial Railways by loan or otherwise. At the opening of the Session it had been the intention of the Ministry to have done so, but political reasons obliged them to abandon it. Money could only be raised therefore by selling shares. Earl Grey had expressed his entire approbation of “wooden railways” to commence with in New Brunswick, guide wheels (? Principle) being used, as also Payne’s process for preserving wood. His Lordship had witnessed both, and approved of both. The proposal of the St. Andrews Company to commence in this economical manner he thought, most prudent and judicious and further said (at which the reader must not smile nowadays) that if the trunk line from Halifax to Quebec should be undertaken, he would appose the consideration of an expensive iron railway in the first instance, as it would be absurd to incur such an outlay, through a wilderness and unsettled country, where wood could be laid for nothing, and when worn out so easily replaced.
Sir Howard Douglass had rendered the agents every assistance in his power. They had also seen Mr. George Pemberton, but he, like all the city people, had given them great discouragement: they were more likely to succeed with persons not in business; they would however be able to ascertain their chances of final success by the next mail packet.
A “Board of Correspondence” was at this time established in London, through the exertions of the Agents, and of the following gentlemen: Thomas Nevile Abdy, James Clay, George Pemberton, William Tinker, Solicitors, Messrs. Goodwin, Castridge, Williams, and Edwards, Westminster; Messrs. Rooker, Birch and Ingram, London.
The above names appeared in conjunction with those of the Colonial Directory, on the front page of a Prospectus, that was then issued by the Agents, and from which a few extracts are taken:
“the prominent way will be formed entirely of wood, according to the plan adopted with so much success in the United States.”
“The capital required for the construction of the railroad from St. Andrews to Woodstock, and the purchase of the plans necessary for efficiently working it is 100,000 pounds.”
“The estimates have been prepared by Civil Engineers in the Crown Land Department of New Brunswick, and have been adopted by the Legislature of that Province.”
“The capital has been divided into 8000 shares of 20 each, of which number 2500 have been already subscribed for in New Brunswick, and 1500 will be set apart for future allocation to residents in the Province. It is proposed to allot the remaining 4000 to responsible parties in Great Britain, to whom exclusively will be reserved the benefit of the guaranteed minimum dividend of 5 percent.”
“It is expected that the line will be opened for traffic in the summer of 1849 (!) and until the opening, interest at 5 percent per annum will be paid on the deposit and calls. This interest and the future dividends on the shares will be paid half-yearly at the Company’s Office, London.”
“A deposit of 2 pounds per share will be payable on allotment. No future call will exceed 2 pounds per share, and there will be an interval of at least 2 months between each call.”
This prospectus next went on to inform the public that the through traffic known from authentic sources, would pay upwards of 20 percent on the capital. That the country abounded with coal fields and rich minerals of various kinds, and that a company had been formed to open and work the iron mines at Woodstock, the ore of which was of a very superior character.
The following “Statement of Actual Existing Traffic” was inserted:
Traffic from St. Andrews to Woodstock
Flour and salted provisions, 100,000 bbls. At 2s6d per bbl. – 12,500 pounds
West India produce, 20,000 bbls. At 2s6d – 2,500 pounds
British Merchandize, 20,000 bbls. At 2s6d – 2,500 pounds
Passengers, 60 per day for 310 days, 10s each – 9,800 pounds
Total – 26,800 pounds


Traffic from Woodstock to St. Andrews
Timber, deals, boards etc. equal to 50,000 tons, at 7s6d per ton, 18,750 pounds
Agricultural produce, 1500 pounds
Passengers, 60 per day, for 310 days, at 10s each – 9300 pounds
Total 56,300 pounds


Current Expenses
Deduct expenses of working the line: repairs, etc. (say 40 percent) – 22,510
Net Profit – 33,310, being equal to 20 percent on a capital of 160,000


The following letter was attached:
Downing Street, May 31, 1847
“Gentlemen, I am directed by Earl Grey to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated 18th inst., in which you bring under His Lordship’s notice the condition and prospectus of the Company which has been formed in New Brunswick for constructing a line of Railroad between St. Andrews and Woodstock, as part of an extended line to Quebec; and I am to express to you, in answer, the sense entertained by His Lordship of the extreme importance of the proposed undertaking, which His Lordship trusts may prove as beneficial to the promotes as it must to the province of New Brunswick, upon which it is calculated to confer great and important advantages. I am to add that the act for facilitating the construction of the Railway has been confirmed by the Queen in Council.”
Signed, B. Hawes
(to be continued)


Standard Aug. 19, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway from its First Inception in 1835.
By W. M. Buck, C. E.
Second Period, 1845 – 1850


The regular meeting of Directors was held in May; John Wilson was again chosen President, and Samuel H. Whitlock appointed Secretary of the Company so long as his services might be required, with the distinct understanding that the funds be raised in England and the work progress, the Directors would provide for a fair remuneration.
Hon. Harris Hatch, John Wilson, and George F. Campbell were appointed the Acting committee, and due notice was to be publicly given to the delinquent stockholders, that unless their 10 percent was paid up within 30 days from date, that they would be severally sued for the same.
Earl Fitzwilliam had made a proposition on 12th May to the London Board to send out to the Province 100 able bodied laborers from his Wicklow estate in Ireland, and in order that the men might obtain work upon the railroad, and be subjected to no disappointment on their arrival, he placed the sum of one thousand pounds to the credit of the Company to pay their wages at the rate of two shillings a day for so long as it would last—probably sixteen weeks—for which the Company were to credit his Lordship in stock. This proposal having been accepted, the “noble one hundred” left in the ship “Star” on the 17th April. The Directors had wooden shanties built for their reception.
On the 14th September a deputation from the London Board consisting of John Wilson and Benjamin Sharpe, had an interview with Lord Grey, the object of which may be gathered from the following letter from His Lordship addressed to Mr. Bridges, the Secretary:
Downing Street, 18th Sept, 1848
“Sir, referring to what passed at the interview which Lord Grey granted to the deputation from the Board of Directors of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad on the 14th inst., I am directed by his Lordship to inform you that whilst it is out of the power of Her Majesty’s Government, without the authority of Parliament, to grant to the promoters of that undertaking any pecuniary assistance, either directly or indirectly, and although his Lordship cannot encourage the expectation that even when parliament reassembles Her Majesty’s Government would feel themselves justified in recommending that such assistance should be granted, since by doing so, application of the same nature from the various British Colonies would be encouraged to an indefinite amount, he has great pleasure in so far complying with the request made to him by the deputation as to communicate to you in writing the opinion he has formed of the undertaking. I am accordingly directed to inform you that in Lord Grey’s judgment the projected railway has been judiciously planned, and is likely if completed to prove of great national importance; and also that there appears to him to be no reasonable ground for doubting that the resources of New Brunswick are far more than sufficient to enable that province to fulfill the guarantee given by the Legislature, and the people of the province will respect the engagements into which they have entered. Lord Grey considers the inhabitants of British America to be entitled by all their past conduct to be relied upon for a punctual discharge of the obligations which they have constructed. This must, however, be regarded merely as an expression of Lord Grey’s opinion, and it must be distinctly understood by those persons in this country who may take shares in this undertaking, that Her Majesty’s government cannot become in any degree responsible for the fulfillment of the expectations by which they have been induced to do so.”
(Signed) Herman Merivale


At this period, we learn from a Halifax journal, that the surveying party which had been sent out by the British Government to explore the route for the Halifax and Quebec Railway, had completed their labors and were about to return to England. This survey had been conducted by Captains Robinson and Henderson, of the Royal Engineers.
The Saint John “New Brunswicker” of Nov. 9th, contained the following notice of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad, announcing an important change on the superstructure of the road.
“We are happy to hear that the London shareholders in this Company are paying up their share very promptly, and that the St. Andrews Board has already received authority to draw for a considerable sum in order to prosecute the works this coming winter. We observe by the London Railway Record that the London Board in consideration of the improved aspect of their affairs has resolved that the railway “shall be iron instead of wood,” and has advertised for 300 tons of railroad iron of the pattern called “hatsrail,” of not less than 40 lbs. weight per yard.
The following is a copy of the advertisement which appeared in the Railway Record of October 14th:
St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company
Tenders for 300 tons of Bridge or Hat-Rails, new or second hand, in good order, weight not exceeding 40 lbs to the yard, will be received at this office on or before Wednesday, the 1st of November. The Tenders must state the shipping port for delivery.
By order, W. Bridges, Secretary
37 Walbrook
One would naturally imagine from the foregoing that the affairs of Company had taken a turn for the better; that money was more plentiful, when iron rails were to be substituted for wooden, and yet, strange as it may seem, Mr. Wilson submitted propositions to the London Board at a meeting on the 22nd October, that in consequence of the great depression in trade, and the small probability of selling the balance of the Class A shares—first to dispense with the services of the London Secretary; second, to close the offices of the London Board; third, to so tie up all accounts, and take charge of all the books, etc., and fourth, to appoint Committee to open all letters and reply to them for a time, “until all Office and Secretary should again be required.”
The London Board, however, ordered the Secretary to transmit a copy of these propositions to the Colonial Board, accompanied with the opinion of the Directors that to close the offices as proposed would be an equivalent to an abandonment of the undertaking, and could only be done on a repayment of all deposits. They therefore recommended that the machinery be maintained until the spring, or a remittance be made to reinstate English shareholders, and meet all legitimate obligations.
At this distant day we must forbear to venture a commentary on the above, and may permit such a proceeding to remain as being incomprehensible; but we are tempted to quote from a Provincial paper of the day, as follows:
“it is with heartfelt pleasure that we send for the cheering news, and point to the coming spring, as the era of brighter days for Charlotte. The sale of the Stock has been effected, amid railway panic and commercial depression; and it is surprising how the energies of so few as have been actually engaged in this undertaking could in so short a time effect such favorable results. What a contrast does our railway now present with its earliest days.”
Yes, and what a contradiction, too.
The following is a statement of the total Expenditures by the Company to May 1st, 1849:
Preliminary and contingent expenses, currency 1469.15.8
Office expenses, 82.4.6
Survey and Engineering Expenses, 547.8.3
Construction (Labor and Materials) 2766.1.1
Advanced Capt. J. Robinson as Agent of the Company to England this month – 200.0.0.
Total £5075.6.7.
(Signed) S. H. Whitlock, Secretary


The actual value of work done to construction to this period according to an estimate made from measurements by Mr. Mahood, acting Engineer, amounted only to £1735.3.2, but on which he had been actually expended as shown above £3796.1.12.
At a meeting of the Local Board on the 3rd September, the Secretary was ordered to address a letter to the London Board, approving of the negotiations being made by Capt. J. Robinson and the stockholders in England, for raising funds, and sending an engineer to the Province.
Fielding Neale, Civil Engineer, having arrived from England, (with five assistants viz: Messrs. Fosdick, Sewall, Doane, Turner and Croasdale) attended a meeting of the Board on the 1st October, and presented his agreement and testimonials.
It having been found inconvenient for a Committee of Directors to control the work of construction, and the direction of the engineering, the President was appointed to superintend the entire machinery, and to consult and direct the Engineer, and all persons employed on the road. The Engineer accordingly received instructions to make a survey and estimate of the road as far as “Soldier’s Brook,” at Waweig (12 miles) to enable the board to contract for the same and advertise for tenders.
Notice should not be here omitted of a Public Railroad Meeting of the Inhabitants of Woodstock and vicinity held at the hall of the Mechanics’ Institute in Woodstock on 13th October at which upwards of 300 persons were present.
The High Sheriff J. T. Winslow occupied the chair, and A. K. S. Wetmore acted as Secretary. The Hon. Harris Hatch and John Wilson, of the Directory, were also present and addressed the meeting, and communicated gratifying intelligence from the London Board, relative to the grand project.
It was resolved that on account of the great zeal and confidence evinced in the undertaking by the London Board in furnishing the necessary funds and sending out an engineer of scientific attainments, that the work should be commenced forthwith in taking levels and sections, cutting out the wood and brush, “the whole distance,” preparatory to the work of grading and laying the superstructure. It was also resolved that in order to ensure the completion of the road from St. Andrews to Woodstock, the county of Carleton should taken stock to the amount of 25,000, and that a committee be appointed to obtain subscribers to the said railroad stock.
On the 24th November the Company invited parties to tender fo the grading and culvert work on a part of the railroad, commencing at Water Street and terminating at Chamcook Lake (5 miles) in small sections to suit contractors. The work to be done under the supervision and to the satisfaction of Fielding Neale, Engineer in chief.
During this year, William Bridges, Secretary to the London Board (having resigned) had been succeeded by Julius Thompson, who as Secretary presented an exhibit of the Receipts and Expenditures in England to 31st December 1849, of which the following is an abstract:
Amount of receipts from various sources – 3856.8.1
Amount of expenditure, miscellaneous, 2907.1.1
Balance on hand 944.8.0
End of Second Period


Aug 26, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck, C. E.
Third Period. 1850 – 1860
A public meeting was held at Grand Falls on the 8th January, 1851; the inhabitants of that section were sensible of the great importance of a railroad communication to the seaboard, and were unanimous in supporting such an enterprise to the fullest extent in their power. It was resolved that the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad was an enterprise of vast importance to the Province, demanding the encouragement and support of the people of that section; that the said railroad would afford speedy communication with the seaboard and a ready market for the surplus produce of the upper country. That a committee of ten persons be appointed to procure subscribers, viz. John Emmerson, F. E. Beckwith, Col. Coombes, Benjamin beveridge, Frances Ries, P. C. Amireaux, W. T. Wilmot, A. B. Hammond, George Doll, and Auguste Webster. That the inhabitants of the County through shoes land the extension of the railroad from Woodstock would pass, would cheerfully convey to the Company a right of way over the same, as done by landed proprietors in other sections of the province.
On the 7th February the Company again advertised for tenders for the grubbing, grading, masonry and culvert work of 26 mils of the road from St. Andrews to the N. W. branch of the Digdeguash river, in sections, or for the whole length; these would be received up to the 12th of April. There were ten bidders, and the tender of Messrs. John G. Myers Lawrence Myers and Bros. was accepted; the schedule of prices wet forth—Bridge Masonry at $4.75 per cubic yard; culvert masonry $2 per cubic yard; earth excavations 26 cents per cubic yard; and rock excavation $1.26 per cubic yard. They also proposed to build 40 miles of the road commencing at St. Andrews and using the same weight of rail, furnish their own engineer, and all material, and be at the whole expense of grading, and putting the road in running order for the sum of 18,000 five hundred dollars per mile, and if their proposal was accepted they would take 75,000 stock.
On the 4th April Alexander Light, C. E., joined the Chief Engineer Staff]
The Directors had decided upon the following mode of payments for the contracts in the first 26 miles. One fourth to be paid when half the work was completed, and accepted by Chief Engineer. One fourth when three fourths were completed and accepted; and the balance on the full completion of the work; half of this balance to be taken in stock.
Messrs. Myers’ contract with the Company was signed and sealed on the 15th of April for he grading of the first ten miles fro St. Andrews, which, so far as the line had been located, proved to be the most expensive section.
The financial position of the Company on the 1st May stood thus:
Total amount of receipts, including those from England – 9506.11.4 pounds
Total amount of expenditure, preliminary, construction, sundries – 8494.6.1 pounds
Balance in hand – 1012.51 pounds


During this month the Messrs. Myers, Contractors, arrived from Portland State of Maine with the greater part of the “Plant” and made active preparations for a commencement. The surveys had reached to Howard Settlement (65 miles) and three of the engineering staff were dismissed. Mr. Light reMained an assistant on the 10 mile section.
On the 18th June the Board of Directors made a conditional contract with the Messrs. Myers to build the entire line to Woodstock which was to be completed in eighteen months from date, for the sum of ten thousand dollars per mile of £2000 stg. Comprising the following mentioned work—the entire excavations of earth and rock, embankments, bridges, culverts, piling, grubbing, laying down the continuous wooden rail sills and iron track thereon; slopes, slides and all subsidences; also to provide the engineering, and to put the road in running order, and to be acceptable to the Company’s consulting Engineer, A. C. Morton, of the Portland and Montreal railroad; the Company to retain Mr. Light and Mr. Hanson on their part, the contractors paying their salaries! The Company to provide the iron rails, delivered at a wharf at St. Andrews, and all the necessary rolling stock required by the contractors. The foregoing including also the contract for the first 10 miles, which would be cancelled, in case of the acceptance of the second offer.
It will be remembered that the Messrs. Myers had made a previous offer for the whole work on the first forty miles of the road, at the rate of eight thousand five hundred dollars per mile, consequently they reduced this amount eight thousand five hundred dollars per mile in view of getting upwards of 40 additional miles to build, and the Company providing the iron, superstructure. The surveys however been commenced at the Woodstock end of the road, from “Richmond Corner” situated about six miles to the westward of the town of Woodstock on the high road to Houlton in State of Maine, and from thence continued to the Howard Settlement connecting with the previous survey to that place. Mr. Fielding Neale joined this party and superintended the location of the line conducted by Mr. Fosdick.
The consulting engineer furnished the Board with the following estimate of the iron and Rolling stock, assuming 80 pounds per yard for rails, on a total distance of 80 miles:
4000 tons iron Rails, etc., delivered at St. Andrews - $120,000
2 Locomotives of equal size as the one already bought - $10,000
20 Heavy Good Cars - $8000
20 fine Good Cars - $10,000
2 Turn Tables - $3000
4 Water Pumps - $2000
Station and Engine House at St. Andrews - $4000
Station at Woodstock - $8000
Intermediate Sheds at stopping places - $2000
Fencing in all - $16,000
Total - $180,000
Average per mile for 80 miles - $12,250
In sterling, say £2,450


The Great Portland Railway convention was held on the 31st July, the object of which was to carry out a continuous line of railway from Halifax via Saint John and St. Andrews Railway, through the State of Maine to join the American lines at Portland. Capt. Robinson, R. N., and John Wilson, represented the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad interests at this memorable convention, Captain Robinson afterwards, in August, proceeded to England as an Agent for the Board with full power of Attorney to act as such. During the month of August, the first grant 10,000 acres from the Government under the Facility Bill was conferred upon the Company, and was afterwards conveyed to Benjamin Sharpe, Managing Director at London for the benefit of the Class A shareholders.
J. W. Byrne had entered the service of the London Board as Secretary and successor to Julius Thompson, who was then under orders to proceed to the Colony as Manager of the railroad. Upon his arrival out he presented himself to the Board, with his credentials, at their meeting on the 20th November at which Captain Robinson was also present and made a lengthened statement of the result of his mission to England.
The resolution of the Board passed 17th November 1849 appointing the President as Manger was concluded, and the business of the Board was confirmed next day, when a letter was submitted from the Messrs. Myers, Contractors, requesting an advance of $2000. The Secretary was ordered to state in reply that the Directors did not feel justified in complying therewith, the contractors having already overdrawn their account to the amount of $800.
About this time, Fielding Neale, Chief Engineer, having resigned, on account of some misunderstanding with the president, Alexander L. Light was appointed to act as Chief Engineer in his stead. It was the declared wish of this gentleman that another Consulting Engineer should be appointed, the London Board having objected to Mr. Merton; the Local Board, after due enquiry, appointed A. P. Robinson, C. E., of Portland, Maine. Manager Thomason wrote this of this gentleman to the London Secretary, in December:
“Mr. Robinson bears a very high reputation for ability in the State of Maine, and is without doubt a very clever Engineer. I am quite certain that his calculation of a saving of $40,000 in the mere grading of the line from Bartlett’s Pond to the N. W. Branch where the Fredericton road crosses, will be easily made by adopting his proposed alteration. I have not the least doubt that we shall derive most valuable assistance from Mr. Robinson’s occasional visits.”
Mr. George Wrightman was appointed under Mr. Light to take the levels over the line of proposed alteration and the plan and profile were accordingly altered.
At this period a contract had been arranged for laying the wood superstructure as far as Chamcook, 5 miles, a cargo of iron rails having left England on the 23rd November, so that eh road would be completed this distance and a locomotive running before the opening of the Legislature, and be of service in obtaining further grants of land, as well as in passing the proposed Scrip bill for £50,000. Petitions for which were signed by the Class A share holders, including their Board of Directors, as well as by the Local Directors and Class B shareholders.
The financial position of the Company at the end of this year (1850) is thus represented:
Total expenditure - £22, 447.4.0
Total Receipts - £19,321.15.0
Balance Against Company £3,125.15.9


On March 11, 1851, the barque “Avon” from Newport arrived with a locomotive and Tender and the first cargo of rails. The locomotive was named “The Pioneer.”
On the 27th March the Company issued a notice to contractors for the acceptance of tenders until 1st May, for the grading 32 miles of the road, commencing from the end of the first 10 mile contract. About 18 tenders were received from varied sections, stating prices per cubic yard, none were then accepted, for the Facility Bill having passed both branches of the Legislature, Manager Thompson was sent to England to negotiate with the London Board, and it was then anticipated that a contract would be arranged in England for the construction of the road to Woodstock.
During the month of April the second cargo of rails arrived in the ship “Ansdale” which through stress of weather had been put back twice to Cork, and once to Halifax.
The annual general meeting of the stock holders was held in the Town Hall, St. Andrews, on the 6th May, at which the President read a statement of the proceedings and finances of the Company. The actual expense under the Board to this period had been £33,000, which included surveying and engineering of the route through to Woodstock; exclusive of these the amount had not exceeded £3000 per mile, which covered the cost of the locomotive, rails and bridges, and work on the 10 mile contract. From the Engineer’s Report the Directors felt confident that the remainder of the road to Woodstock would not exceed $10,000 per mile. The Legislature of the Province had generously voted $50,000 sterling in Provincial Bonds, bearing 6 percent interest, and redeemable in 30 years.
The expenditure of the London Board, according to the declaration of their Secretary in the presence of the Lord Mayor of London, was up to March, as follows:
Preliminary expenses, on formation of company, and subsequently sterling - £4,397.0.10
On account of Engine and tender, iron rails, and other material sent to St. Andrews - £4,167.8.11
Transmitted to the Directors of the Company in St. Andrews - £12,988.5.0.
Total - £21,552.14.0
The expenditure in the Province to June 1st was currency –
Upon actual construction of the works - £17,807.18.2
Engineering and surveying expenses - £4,905.1.1
Office, Law and Crown Land Surveys - £779.1.0
Preliminary, Incidental and other expenses - £2,379.7.8
Total - £25,871.8.0
The receipts amounted to - £24,668.19.0
Balance - £1,202.9.0


This expenditure entitled the Company to 20,000 acres of land in addition to the previous grant of 10,000 acres.


Sept 2, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck, C. E.
Third Period. 1850 – 1860
In consequence of the operations of the “Joint Stock Company Act” in England the Class A shareholders were obliged to apply to the Imperial parliament for an Act to incorporate themselves as a separate Company, otherwise the former Act would have imposed on them an unlimited liability, and would have had the effect of breaking up the English Company of stockholders.
A provisional agreement had been entered into with a Mr. William Shaw, an English Contractor, during manager Thomson’s mission to England, for the completion of the road to Woodstock, who sent an accredited agent, Mr. John Brookfield, for the purpose of inspecting the line, and obtaining such necessary information as would head to a correct estimate of the cost. Mr. Brookfield arrived from England on the 8th of June, and accompanied by the Manager and Engineer, walked over the line the whole distance to Richmond Corner.
The following are extracts from the Report of the Hon. W. H. Merritt, Chief Commissioner of Public Works in Canada, to the Governor General, relating to the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad and published about this time:
“The St. Andrews Company contemplate, as I am informed, extending their railroad to Woodstock, on the Saint John river, next season, from thence to the Grand Falls and the Madawaska; thence to Temiscouta, and on the St. Lawrence; and to accomplish this, I propose that the Government should lend them money, £3,000 per mile, to be paid as the work progresses, in proportion to the contract prices, which they should sanction before the work commences. This would enable the Company to construct the road at the lowest cash prices, instead of paying double the amount of its actual worth, whichever has, and ever will be the case under any scheme of credit which has been devised.”
“With a terminus on the St. Lawrence, for possessing many decided advantages on the one side, the port of St. Andrews on the Atlantic, a harbor not surpassed on the sea coast, being through a great extent of country, abounding in pine and timber of the best qualities, water powers, minerals, and possessing a good soil,”
“I feel persuaded from the quantity of manufactured lumber it will convey, the supplies the interior will require, together with the through trade on the branch line to Quebec in the winter season, and the advantages of passing through our own territory, without the cost, detention and annoyance of Custom Houses, that this railroad holds out as favorable a prospect to Stockholders as any other Northern line.”
At a meeting of the Local Board, held on the 10th July, it was resolved that the Class A directors should be authorized to enter into a contract for the construction and completion of the remainder of the line to Woodstock for any sum not exceeding £2,300 sterling per mile. The road to be delivered up ready for traffic. The contract not to include Rolling Stock and Station buildings.
The following is a copy of Mr. Light’s original estimate upon which the above sum of £2,300 sterling per mile, was based, from approximated quantities, on 16 miles of the road then located.
1,760 lineal yards, cleared and preparing land - £150
12,500 cubic yards, excavation in clay, gravel or other materials not requiring blasting 625
1,600 cubic yards, rock in place, or in detached lumps, containing more than one cubic yard – 250
250 cubic yards dry rubble masonry – 125
63 tons iron rails – 535.10
3 tons Cast iron chairs – 21
8 cwt. Wrought iron screws – 13.10
35 cwt. Dog nails – 43.15
8580 cubic feet timber in trackway – 160.17
1956 cubic yards ballast, (gravel, sand or broken stone) – 244.40
1,700 lineal yards beams and railing – 77
One mile diversion of road at commencement of contracts – 10
Timber work to level crossings – 5
Timber top to bridges as per list – 20
Timber work at Goldsmith’s Lake Bridge – 5.3
Single drain on top of cuttings and foot of embankments – 12.10
Add for contingencies – 1.14.6
Sterling – 2,300


Deducting the cost of the iron superstructure from the above amount there would be £1,686 stg per mile, or $8262 for grading the road bed, bridging, ballasting and laying the super structure, being $1738 per mile less than the proposal of Messrs. Myers and Co. And it to the above sum be added Mr. Morton’s estimate per mile for rolling stock and station buildings, etc., in sterling, viz., £380, the estimated total cost per mile of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad will be £3,180.
On the 24th day of June the Act to facilitate the construction of a railway from St. Andrews to Quebec, as passed by the Council and Assembly of the Province in the Month of March was by her Majesty, with the advice of Her Majesty’s Privy Council, specially confirmed, ratified and enacted. Under the provisions of this bill, the company would be ? to as much Government Scrip as the company had expended upon the work from its passage through the Legislature, and which up to the month of September according to depositions, had amounted to about £2999 stg.; this amount, however, would belong to the Class A shareholders, and would not be available in the Province without their consent; the balance on hand on the 1st June being only £166. Money was very scarce in England, and but little could be remitted to the Local Board; the Messrs. Myer’s 10 mile contract was almost completed, and within 30 days after the completion the sum of £4500 would be legally due them by the terms of their contract, and which the Company were then bound to pay. The contractors men had received no wages for a period of three months, and were greatly exasperated, on account of which great trouble was apprehended through riots and outrages and destruction of property, if they were not paid; and if the London Board could not come to the rescue in time, it would be impossible to sustain the Company any longer, and the most disastrous results would ensue. This was the precise position the Company was in at the time they were negotiating with Shaw in England for the completion of the road to Woodstock; and the manager had expressed a hope to the London Secretary that his Directors would see how necessary it was for their safety that no time should be lost in pushing on the works to completion, in order to retain possession of the lands they had, and become entitled to other further grants and facilities. Waning hopes, were somewhat revived on the receipt from the London Secretary of copies of the specification, amended by Shaw and schedules of prices and articles of agreement, etc., to be approved, confirmed and signed by the President, and Engineer in Chief on behalf of the Board, and then returned to be attached to any contract that might be entered into in England by the London Board.
Now at this time the Local Board had not really money enough to pay Messrs. Dimock and Wilson for the freight on the iron rails per the ship “Ansdale,” and were obliged to propose their acceptance of a mortgage on the Company payable in two months, which was agreed to. The Manager went to Saint John to procure the £2000 debenture bonds from the Provincial Treasurer, and afterwards endeavoured to negotiate a loan from some of the Banks of their security, but failed in accomplishing it.
The Messrs. Myers notified the Company that they had completed their contract, and requested their acceptance, and had also paid off the labourers by drafts upon the Company who complied therewith for this relief. Mr. Light had inspected the work, and had informed the Board in writing that the words were in a finished condition to be accepted by the Company.
The Debenture Bonds had then been lodged in the Charlotte County Bank, the Directors of which advanced the Company £300 on their security and with which amount the orders of Contractors’ laborers were paid up.
Mr. Light’s final estimate of the work done by the Messrs. Myers on the 10 mile contract amounted to £16,083. In addition to which the following expenditure was also made:
By Earl Fitzwilliam’s men – 2.945.3.5
By Messrs. Denley and Peacock – 270.7.6
Culverts of wood and stone – 375
Excavation foundations to do – 40.5
Days work at O’Neill’s Point – 225.4.10
Katie’s Cove Bridge – 720.4.2
Trestle work and bridging at dam 300.11.7
Trestle work and bridging at other places 750
Total - £21.709.16.6


A committee of the Executive Council was appointed by His Excellency the Lieut. Governor to investigate the accounts of the Company, and the Directors being notified to the effect, appointed their Manager and Secretary to proceed to Fredericton, and lay before the Committee, consisting of the Attorney and Solicitor Generals, a statement in full of the Company’s transactions, bearing date November 5th, 1851, of which the following is a synopsis:
Number of share subscribed for in England 2234 at £20 each stg. - £44,880
On which a time ? 10 percent was paid equal to - £1488
Aggregate amount paid by shareholders in addition therto; 19,756
Total - £24,244


Leaving a balance by Class A shareholders of £20,636
Total amount of class A shares 4000 at £20 each, representing £80,000
? of these shares, not sub [scribed?] 1750 - £35,120


Amount of capital not then subscribed for by Class A - £44, 880
Number of shares subscribed for by Class B 2102 at £25 each - £52,550
On which amount 10 percent deposit was paid, equal to £5,255
There was also paid in addition therto the sum of 1,957
Balance - £6312


Paid by Earl Fitzwilliam on 48 shares of this class – 1200
Total amount on 823 bona fide shares – 5142
Amount of capital not then subscribed for by class B - £47, 433
To this add deficiency of Class A, in currency – 53,856
Total deficiency of capital - £101,264

The total expenditure was as follows:
Grading, earthwork and bridging - £17,185.18.2
Preliminary, contingent, law and office expenses – 2,904.10.10
Surveying and engineering – 5,149.9.1
Plant, viz. locomotive and tender, car and rails – 5000.13.8
Total £37,914.0.9


Of this amount there was a sum of £8,279.14.9 or 22 percent, that was not expended upon actual construction, but absorbed by the expenses of the two Directors, Law and Interest account.
The liabilities of the Company at this time amounted to £5,435 currency.
There still reMained 70 miles to build at £2300 sterling per mile - £161,000
And to provide for additional rolling stock and stations – 10,000
Total - £171,000


To this should have been added for contingent expenses in England and Province, law and interest, one deposits, etc., - 34,200
Total (sterling) - £205,260


The fictitious resources of the Company, or he means not then at their disposal to provide for their liabilities were thus arrived at by simple addition:
Balance due on class A stock (cy) - £66,907
Balance due on Class B stock – 36,836
Grant of lands, 200,000 acres – 100,000
Total £261,793


The grants of land, however, were not then available unless a sufficient expenditure was proved by the Company, to entitle them thereto, therefore ? was entirely conditional upon the stock being paid up.
The Company had as yet only been granted ten thousand acres and £2600 Debentures bonds for an expenditure of £37,000 upon the whole undertaking, and as no more money was to be got from the Class B stockholders, so the whole responsibility of the completion of the line to the Richmond terminus lay with the English shareholders, supported by the Provincial Government, when they were legally entitled to such support, according to the provisions of the Facility Bill. The ? inducement therefore still left to English capitalists to invest in the Provincial ? was, as provided for by this bill, a guarantee of 6 percent for 25 years on £109,000? And the Class A had still ? for the completion of the work . . . . They resolved to make an effort to proceed, and accordingly concluded a contract with Mr. William Shaw ? of Leeds, who had expressed himself willing to contract for the completion of the railway on the following terms: viz. £2300 sterling per mile, amounting to £101,00: the whole payable as follows: £100,000 in cash, £16,000 in lands, and £51,000 in the Company’s Debentures, with proper security for the payment of these debentures. In giving this security a difficulty was encountered, as the issue of Debentures entirely depended upon the expenditure of the Company, the security could only be met by the Company giving a mortgage on the land and a proportion of the Road when completed.
The Messrs. Myers not having been satisfied with the final measurement of their contract by the Chief Engineer, gave notice to the Board that unless their own claims were satisfied, they would institute legal proceedings against the Company. Terms for a proper and amicable adjustment however proposed by Mr. D. P. Myers which were agreed to by the Board, viz: that Mr. Light should confer with Mr. A. P. Robinson, the Consulting Engineer, previous to having recourse to arbitration, as provided for by the contract.
A digression must here be made in order to notice a letter from the Hon. Hamilton Merritt, Chief Commissioner Public Works in Canada, to His Excellency the Right Hon. Elgin and Kincardine, Governor General of Canada, on the subject of the “Construction, maintenance and management of the contemplated grand line Railroad from Halifax through Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to the western Boundary of Canada,” and dated “Saint Catherines, Sept. 30th, 1854.” From this lengthy document we quote the summing up:
“Having alluded to the route by the valley of the Saint John River, New Brunswick, in my Report of January last, I was glad to find its favorable position confirmed by Mr. Keetor’s letter of the 12th June.”
“However, as this is the only portion where any doubt can exist respecting the early completion of the line; and as it promises to be one of the most valuable auxiliaries to our water communication, inasmuch as it is the shortest route through British territory to the Atlantic; opens the greatest extent of inland country for our products, and will leave the St. Lawrence at a point of the upper lakes, with the same regularity and safety, and at nearly the same cost of transportation, as to Montreal or Quebec company be offered a loan not exceeding £4000 per mile through Canada without interest, until the stock yields a produce of 6 percent, to the private stockholders.”
“The Province of New Brunswick having already advanced a sufficient sum to build the road from St. Andrews on the Atlantic to Woodstock, 80 miles distant, they will no doubt receive the same aid throughout their territory which, with this aid, insures the construction of the whole line to Quebec.”
On the subject the Saint John Courier also remarked, as follows:
“We understand that both the Government and people of Canada would give the preference to the route by the valley of the Saint John river to Saint John, and thence by the Bend to Halifax, and as it would be accomplished by the St. Andrews and Quebec and North American Railways, both now under charter, without further assistance being required from the Province; we don’t see what more need to be done than that those works should be prosecuted to completion with energy. As this ill be really a “Halifax and Quebec Railway running through British territory,” we presume that the Imperial guarantee may be a readily obtained for half its cost as for the whole. In such case enough would be left to extend a branch line to Miramichi.”

Sept 9, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835
By W. M. Buck, C. E.
Third Period – 1850 – 1860
The Special Committee appointed by the Government to investigate the accounts of the Company having submitted their report to the Executive Council, the following Minute of the Council was transmitted to the Company:
In Council 11 Dec. 1851
“the Committee of Council having had under consideration the Report of the Select Committee appointed to examine and report upon the affairs of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company, regret to find that the payment of the £2000 Stock in Class B Shares alleged to have been made and expended in the aid road since the 28th march last, and which payment and expenditure were ? and ? to the Act of Assembly by the affidavit of their President and Mr. Robinson, one of the Directors, was not so paid and expended, but on the contrary only the sum of £1300 of such money has since that period been paid and expended on the said road.”
“That the issue of £2000 by the Government, pursuant to said affidavit, has therefore been made under erroneous information, and that the Company should be immediately notified before any further claim be made upon the Government, either for debentures under new payments or for grants of lands under Acts of Assembly. The Directors fo the said Company should withdraw so much of the Class B stock held by the Government as amounts to the deficiency, now discovered as not having been paid up, and that they should substitute for the same, to be delivered to the Government Class A stock to the amount of such deficiency by the payment of £943 of class B stock, ready for expenditure on or before the 1st day of March next, such payment to be authenticated to the satisfaction of His Excellency in Council.”
“That the Committee are willing to believe that the parties in making the affidavit adverted to, were under the misapprehension of the construction of the Debenture Act, which conclusion the report of the Select Committee now under consideration also warrants them in assuming.”
“Approved and order that a copy of the foregoing resolution be furnished to the Company.” [Vide Report of General Meeting held on 4th May, 1853, further on.]
The St. Andrews Standard of Dec. 17, contained the following notice:
Highly Important!
The Contract Closed with Mr. Shaw of Leeds, England!
To the Editor of the Standard:
Sir, Knowing the anxiety which has existed in many parts of the Province, and particularly in this neighborhood, respecting the completion of a contract between the Company and an English contractor for the construction of the reMained of our line to Woodstock; and being desirous to put an end to the fears which I believe have been entertained by many persons on that subject, I beg to inform you that an official letter from the London Board was received by the mail delivered here this morning, announcing that a contract has been accepted and concluded with Mr. Shaw of Leeds. By private letter I am led to believe that his agent will arrive in this Province by Christmas or soon after for the purpose of commencing operations.”
(Signed, Julius Thompson, Manager)
During the month of March, 1852, the London Board made an advance of £4000 sterling to the Company to meet their liabilities in the Province; the receipt therefore was formally acknowledge accompanied by a notification that a further call of 10 percent was due by the Class A shareholders, in accordance with the terms of the Deed of Arrangement.
The London board were, at this time, informed by the London Secretary, that Mr. Shaw wished to be relieved from his contract on account of the Class B shareholders never having shown any disposition to pay up their stock, and that consequently there would be no funds to pay him; and that if the Local Board thought that under these circumstances, legal proceedings should be commenced against Mr. Shaw, the London Board, upon being authorized to do so, would take immediate action.
The Local Board upon duly considering the matter at their meeting on the 25th March, concluded that when it could be clearly shown to Mr. Shaw that no fears could any longer exist as to the certainty of the class B payments being made by Debenture bonds and otherwise that he might be more readily induced to ratify his agreement for a contract by the fear of proceedings at Law. However, it was never very clearly shown to Mr. Shaw that the Class B payments would be promptly made, and he was allowed to retire without any legal proceedings being resorted to. In the meantime his former agent, Mr. J. Brookfield, arranged for a co-partnership in England with two friends who had been previously experienced in railway construction, viz: James Sykes and George William King, all of Sheffield. This firm next entered into negotiations with the London Board for taking the contract abandoned by Shaw, and upon nearly similar articles of agreement. The London Board used the powers previously invested in them, and closed the contract with Messrs. Jas. Sykes and Co., which was approved and confirmed by the Local Board. The first official notification of such given in the Province was to the Hon. J. R. Partlow, Provincial secretary, by Manager Thompson, May 15th.
Sir—I have the honor to inform you for the information of His Honor the Administrator of the government and Executive Council, that I had received by the English mail delivered here this morning, the original deeds duly executed by Class A Directors and Messrs. Sykes, King and Co., for the construction by contract of the whole of the line from the termination of the first 10 miles to Woodstock.
Mr. Brookfield came out from England at latter end of May. Mr. King arrived in June, a number of able bodied men, mechanics and their families, and a large quantity of working materials, arrived during the following month of July, also the ? Engineer to the firm of Contractors.
As it was necessary that the work required to be done for the completion of the fist 10 miles of the road, should be accomplished without delay, comprising the laying of the superstructure and ballasting, rebuilding of the breastwork round Katy’s Cove, which had been washed away by high tides during heavy gales, an arrangement was made by the President, Capt. Robinson and Manager Thompson with Messrs. Sykes and Co., to undertake and finish this work, and a separate contract was entered into with Mr. Brookfield by the Board for this purpose, and however expected to have found all this work completed on taking the 70 mile contract.
A general meeting of the shareholders was held in Town Hall on the 4th May when the Report of the Directors, drawn up by the Manager, was submitted, from which we make an abstract, having reference to the Select Committee of the Government and their Report:
“An application has been made for a copy of the Commissioner’s Report to the Executive Council, but it being considered a Government paper, the request has been acceded to.”
Another important paragraph may be quoted from this Report as follows:
“There is an acknowledge balance at the present moment of £1968.16.1 due on the contract with Mr. Myers, for the whole of which sum he has already issued orders on the Company, but the Directors have been unable to come to any final settlement with him in consequence of his having sent, in claim for about £15,000 (sic) for alleged extra work, and for losses said to have been incurred by him in consequence of alleged improper alterations in the location of the line.”
The turning of the “first sod” on the 4th of June, under the auspices of Col. Murray, the Administrator of the Government of the Province, and Mrs. Murray (a niece of Earl Fitzwilliam); the interesting duty of the day having devolved upon this lady, she raised the first sod and wheeled it away to the end of a plank and there tipped it. The Hon. Colonel Hatch, in the absence of the president of the Board of Directors, and on behalf of the Company, turned the second sod. The Chief Engineer and Contractor next joined in turning the third sod as typical of the agency by which the work was to be completed.
Hon. Col. Hatch, in his address to the large assemblage, stated that but two out of the six persons who had originally projected and promoted the design of the railroad were then living.
The Company expended upwards of forty pounds in celebrating the day.
The work thus commenced went on satisfactorily, and without hindrance up to a certain period, to which allusion will be made hereafter more fully. During the latter part of this year the Attorney General made application to the Manager, in compliance with a requisition of the government, for a contract for the completion of the road from Waweig to Woodstock, accompanied by the following questions to which are appended the answers returned by the manager:
1st. Amount of stock subscribed for by class A or B since the Government investigation in November, 1851.
Answer: In November, 1851, there was subscribed by Class A stock, 2244 shares, since that date, 1756 shares have been taken up, making the total 4000 shares. In class B no further issue has been made in this Province, except those given to the Treasurer in exchange for debentures. But 800 shares have at their own request been placed at the disposal of Class A Directors.
2nd. The amount paid in on their shares by stockholders since the same date?
Answer: The amount paid in on deposits and calls, irrespective of debentures issued by the Province on shares delivered to the Provincial Treasurer was £16,162 up to the 30th June last, since which date no returns have been made by the London Board of their Receipts.
3rd. Amount expended in carrying on the works since the same date?
Answer: Monthly payment fo contractors, sg. £6357, Expended in England for iron, etc., £7358, Engineering and surveying expenses, salaries, etc., £814. Total £15,024.
4th. What progress has been made towards the completion of the line since the same date?
Answer: this question is difficult of reply inasmuch as the works are being carried forward in detached places over a distance of 25 miles, viz.: to the Fredericton Road at the N. W. Branch of Digdeguash river, but may be judged of as a whole from the expenditure above given. In many parts the works are in a great state of forwardness, and the Locomotive running as far as Chamcook, and as to these operations must be added the surveys which have and are still being carried on north of the Howard Settlement.
5th. The means of completing the work?
Answer: This question was fully replied to in the statement furnished to the Commissioner last year by the Board.
The Company next petitioned the His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor in Council for further issue of debentures the extent of £700 sterling which was accompanied by the affidavits of the President and manager stating that £1000 being the proceeds of the Provincial Debenture Bonds previously issued to the Company, had been expended in the construction and carrying on of the works of the said road, and that a further sum of £7000 sterling had been paid in and was then ready to be expended upon the construction of the said railway since the first issue of Provincial Debentures for the £4000.
In reply to this application the Provincial Secretary under date 20th of December informed the Company that His Excellency in Council did not consider the affidavit sufficient under the provisions of the Act granting facilities. The Manager was therefore required to furnish to the Executive Board duly authenticated such information as a detailed account of the expenditure of the £4000 issued in July: also of the £4000 then testified to; have been expended on the road between St. Andrews and Woodstock; also the mode of paying in the £7000, viz: by whom, to whom, when and where, and if not paid to the Treasurer, why it was not paid to him. Also, what portion of the sums were expended in iron rails, and in what amount, where it had been shipped, and where arrived, and whether the amount returned embraced the full Invoice price, or three quarters thereof, only as provided to be paid over under the contract.
The following is a copy of the statement of expenditure of the Class A shareholders to 31st December, and for which receipts were given by Capt. Robinson, president, and George A. Street, a Director of the Company.
Sum acknowledged Class B to have been paid to them up to the 30th day of June, 1852—£35,918.16.4
Sum expended since 31st Dec. 1852, as found by public auditors—£12,632.4.9
Sum total received—£48.551.0.10
Receipts for deposits of £2 on 4000 shares—£8000
Receipts for first call on deposits of £2 on 4000-£8000
Receipts in advance of calls—£32,551.0.10
Balance £48,551.0.10


Sept 16, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835.
By W. M. Buck
Third period 1850 – 1860
In further reply to the former application of the president and manager for the issue of the £7000 Debenture bonds by the government His Excellency in Council on the 10th January, 1853, resolved:
“That in order to justify the Government in issuing debentures from time to time to the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company, under the provision of the several Acts of Assembly relating to the construction of the said railway, it must be made to appear to the satisfaction of the Government—
“1. That the money has been paid into the credit of the Company, either to the Treasurer, or bona fide to the funds of the Company, ready to be expended on future operations upon which the Company seek to obtain an issue of debentures.
“2. That the proceeds of the previous Debentures and the money paid in, in order to obtain the same have been bona fide expended in the construction of works done since the issuing of the last preceding Debentures. His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor is of opinion that under the Act the Debentures should only issue for the construction of prospective works and not to pay for works previously done.”
“The proof furnished on the present application does not seem completely to fulfill the above conditions, inasmuch as it does not appear that the proceeds of the last debentures and the subscriptions on which the same were obtained have been expended in the construction of works actually done since the first issue of such debentures.”
“The application for Debentures is therefore postponed until further proof be supplied.”—Extract from the Minutes (signed) John C. Allen, C. E. C.
The Board of Directors were quite unprepared for a decision of this kind; it was therefore resolved to address His Excellency again on subject, which the President was deputed to do, calling the attention of His Excellency to the position in which the Company would be place din regard to the English stockholders and the Contractors if they did not meet the pecuniary engagements. It was contended that the object of the Legislature in passing the Acts was to facilitate the construction of the road, which when completed would be a great benefit to the Province, and it was thought that the Executive would have put a fair and liberal construction on these acts to enable the Company to keep faith with the English stockholders who, were embarking their money in the undertaking. The contract required that payments should be made monthly to the Contractors either in the Province or in England, and payments were made in England for Iron purchased by the Contractor; and the stockholders deposits were paid in at irregular periods in England after the calls were made, so that it would be impossible for he company to so regulate the payments as to comply with the construction the Executive had imposed on the Act. The sum of £7000 had been paid in by the Class A stockholders, to be expended in the construction of the railway, and all the money previously obtained had been so expended; this was the nature of the affidavit made as required by the Act, the Board therefore considered they were entitled in point of law and justice to the Debentures, and should the Government adhere to refusal, it would be considered by the English stockholders as in violation of a guarantee on the faith of which their capital had been advanced. This presidential message looked the following rely from His Excellency:
Government House, Fredericton
July 15th, 1853
“Sir, I have to acknowledge your letter of the 13th last, on the subject of the Minute Council of the 10th inst. I regret very deeply the inconvenience caused to the Company by the decision conveyed in such Minute, but I cannot admit the intention of the Legislature was to facilitate the completion of the railway; therefore I should be justified in putting in the Act a construction other than that which the law advisers of the Crown think such Act will bear. With every disposition to give the bonds a fair and liberal construction, it must still be one which is legal. I shall lay your letter of the 13th instant before my Council on the first opportunity.”
“In the meantime I am desirous of knowing whether affidavits can be made or proof given that the expenditure now alleged as a ground for a fresh issue of debentures was wholly and entirely on account of works executed since the 13th Vic, chap. 36 was passed?”
“I don’t know whether the answer to this question would effect the view taken by any Council, but I think it right to make the inquiry.”
“I must in conclusion observe I should much lament the creation of any discredit or mistrust in the good faith of the Commercial guarantee. According to my view, however, public credit is best supported by great caution in incurring liabilities, and perfect readiness to meet them when incurred. Nor can I conceive that the faith of the Province could be called in question because the conditions prescribed by an Act of the Legislature as necessary to the issue of debentures were strictly observed according to the legal interpretation fo such Act.”
(signed) Edmund Head
Capt. Robinson, R. N. president, etc.


Sept 23, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835.
By W. M. Buck
Third period 1850 – 1860
The Board next resolved to send a Deputation of two of its members to England to confer with the London Board on the foregoing subject, and the general position of the Company’s affairs, and to negotiate with Class A or any parties in England, by the formation of a new company for the continuation of the railroad from Woodstock to the Canadian frontier, and to enter into any such contracts or bargains, to effect any scheme which might be adopted for such continuation, and to provide for the deficiency in the funds required to complete the first section to Woodstock. Captain Robinson and George D. Street being chosen for this service, left for England and returned in April.
The Board again on the 8th March petitioned His Excellency in Council for an issue of Debentures for £13,500 accompanying the same with a statement and account duly vouched and sworn to by the Secretary S. H. Whitlock, showing that up to 28th February £30,124 sterling had been expended in construction after the paying of the Act; and only £6,000 had been received from the Provincial Debentures leaving a balance of £24,124 as having been paid in by the Class A shareholders principally. The Company were therefore entitled to an issue of Bonds for £18,124 sterling. But as the Government had taken exception to the sum of £4,623 sterling, shown in the statement which accompanied the affidavit of January 5th, as having been paid in account of the Contract with Messrs. Myers, the Company would be willing to forego this amount as the Council were of opinion that it had been improperly applied, and would ask for the balance of £13,500, by the postponement of which the had been greatly inconvenienced and retarded in the prosecution of the work.
The provincial secretary replied on the 17th March stating that although the sum of £30,124 was alleged to have actually expended, the Council did not clearly see how it was proved that any part of that amount was then in the hands of the Company “ready to be expended” as required by the terms of the Act, and the Board were again referred to the minute of the 10th January. The Directors made allusion to this vexed question in their Report, read at the General Meeting of Shareholders held on 2nd may; wherein they mentioned that they had been prevented from urging on the works more rapidly on account of the adverse interpretation which had been put on the Facility Act by the Government; this obstruction once removed they expected having 25 mils of the road opened before Winter; 150 laborers had arrived during the previous month, and two more ships with additional men, and 600 tons of iron were daily expected. The paying qualities of the line wee becoming more apparent as the works were being progressively developed; the further the interior was penetrated, the more convincing was the enormous traffic which must pass over the road. Considerable improvements were being daily made in the location of the line by which great savings would be effected. (The “great savings,” if any, were then supposed to revert to Messrs. Sykes and Co. who agreed to build for £2,300 sterling per mile) and the quantities confined within the estimates; (this was the real object,) £1,100 of Debentures had been received, and £11,000 more were in course of issue: 20,000 acres of land had also been granted since the last meeting, and the Company were entitled to further grant of 30,000 acres. The total expenditure from the commencement amounted to £68,888.1.10. On the 10th May, the Secretary, Mr. Whitlock, received from the Provincial Treasurer at Saint John £11,000 of Debenture Bonds, which he immediately forwarded to the London Secretary.
In the month of June, the government appointed two Directors as provided for in the Facility Act, to inspect the road and the Company’s accounts from time to time, the gentlemen appointed were Benjamin Wollaupter, High Sheriff of York County, and George L. Hatheway, M. P. P. for he same County; these gentlemen made their first inspection of the works on July 7th, and expressed their entire satisfaction at the progress then made. This progress was drawing the attention of some of the Canadian papers to the “St. Andrews and Quebec Railway,” and was, at this time, eliciting favorable comment; in evidence of which the following extracts from the Montreal “Sun” of July the 28th are adduced, being copied from an article on “The advantages offered to Canada by the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad which no other line intended to reach the Sea through British Territory can pretend to Equal.”
“When it is taken into account that Rivière du Loup is only 117 miles from the Grand Falls on the river Saint John, and that the Grand Falls may be considered as the centre of the New Brunswick and American lumbering grounds, it will at once be seen that a very large share of the American custom would immediately accrue to Canada for the provision wanted for the Camps, and for the very obvious reason that the railway could deposit a barrel of flour much cheaper than can be imported by the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers. There is not the remotest probability that a line of Railway will run from the coast on Maine into the interior, but should one be constructed from Rivière du Loup to the Grand Falls and thence to St. Andrews it is morally certain that junction lines into the upper territory of Maine be immediately built, and for all the purposes of Commerce, that portion of the State would be annexed to Canada. We are not of those who would decry one line of road for the purpose of puffing up another. We think that before long the Atlantic and St. Lawrence railway will have an abundant and remunerative through traffic. It has advantages of is own which it can never be deprived of by any other lines, but we must not on that account refrain from stating our conviction that for the purpose of conveying our Canadian products to the lumbering districts of Maine itself, to two thirds of New Brunswick and to a great part of Nova Scotia, the Portland road could not come into successful competition with the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad if both were in operation. The arguments in favor of the latter are too many and important to be dismissed in a few words. Meanwhile we think it our duty to urge the consideration which it presents upon our enterprising and indomitable Montreal men.”
The Local and English boards of Directors had acted together with perfect accord up to the month of September, when through some untoward circumstances, bills amounting to £3500 sterling and drawn by the Local on the London board without previously advising, were protested by the latter. The London Secretary in adverting to this step officially to the Local Board stated that this Directors regretted to find themselves under the necessity of dishonoring the bills; they did not feel justified in accepting them when all the heavy payments for construction were made in England; the £11,000 Debenture Bonds last forwarded to England, and received on 24th may had been expended in the following manner, viz:
June, to Paid Contractors May
Estimates—(Sykes and Co.) - £697.4s.10d
“ Iron shipped per “Fanny Penuey,” – 968.9s.6d
July, June. Estimate – (Sykes and Co.) - £1,505.14s.6d
“ Iron per “Sir ? Forbes,” 2351.11s.1d
“ Contractors Bill due in June – 4,000.0s.0d

Notice from Contractors that they have received a bill for work for July and will received official documents for £2,325.0s.0d.
Total 11.847.19.11d


So that the Debenture Bonds were being exhausted in England as fast as they were furnished; the Company had but a small amount to their credit at the Messrs. Glynn’s Bank, in fact, not sufficient to meet the Contractors last estimate, as above. The London Directors took the ground that the Local Board were not authorized to draw upon them beyond £1,000, and only then in cast of an emergency, it having been arranged when the last deputation were in England, that the Contractors’ Estimates were all to be paid in England, relieving the Local Board from immediate heavy expenses. The manager had asked permission of the London board to draw for, at least, £3,000 sterling, stating that he would prevent his board from drawing any Bills until he heard from England, and got permission; unfortunately, however, the President undertook and the Board consented to draw without leave or advising, and consequently the London Board protested, thinking it prudential, not to incur further liabilities, etc, were satisfied. They were also of opinion that all the English capital, and the money received from the Provincial Government, in Bonds should be exclusively appropriated to the Contractors, and expenses in England; and that the contingent expenses in the Province should be provided for and paid by the calls on the Class B shareholders, and which they had agreed to.
On the other hand, the Local Board viewed the matter in quite a different light, and discussed it fully at a meeting held on the 6th September, and were of opinion that the Bills amounting to £3,500 sterling which had been drawn by the president and Manager of the Company to provide for necessary expenses in carrying on the railway had been refused acceptance under the pretence that the London board had no funds, whereby most serious consequences would result, and an expense of fully £500 be incurred in paying damages on those bills, and according to the statements of the London Secretary that a sum of £6,260 had been paid in by Class A shareholders in addition to the Debentures, out of which the bills would have been paid or at least accepted until the amount was procured on the advance of Calls and thereby save the credit of the Company and all contingent expenses. Therefore it was resolved that, in the opinion of the board the Class A Directors had acted in violation of good faith, and in a prejudicial manner to the interests of the Company as to lead to the conclusion that all further connection with them should as soon as possible be put an end to.
That no further Government debentures be forwarded to England but be disposed of in the Province to meet the existing liabilities and that an immediate call be made on Class A under the Deed of arrangement.
The Secretary informed the Board that a number of small bills amounting to £296 had to be met, but that £250 would answer sufficiently just then. Whereupon the amount was raised on the personal security of the Directors, and a joint note for that amount was drawn up and signed; there were seven present, including one of the Government Directors.
A copy of the above resolution was forwarded to the London Secretary, who in reply under date 7th October notified the Manager of the Local Board, as follows: “My Directors have thought the resolution of your board of the 6th ult. Of such vital importance that they have (at an adjourned meeting held on Wednesday to that that resolution again into consideration) decided that I should at once proceed to St. Andrews instead of entering into a correspondence respecting it. In sincerely trust my visit to St. Andrews may be the means of bringing two Boards to a better understanding, for as they at present stand, it is morally impossible that they can work harmoniously. I shall sail in the Niagara on the 15th inst.”
(Signed) J. W. Byrne, Secretary


Mr. Byrne having arrived, was introduced by Mr. Thomson to the Director, at a meeting held on the 1st November, and presented the resolution of the London Board directing him to proceed to St. Andrews, and place himself in communication with the Directors, and to protest against their resolution not to transact any more Debentures to his Board of Directors; and to adjust all other matters in dispute between the two Boards. The President and Govt. Directors not being present at this the Board adjourned until the 4th when they again met in full attendance. Mr. Byrne read a resolution of his Directors in reply to that passed by the Local Board in Sept. 6th which entered fully into the reason why they were obliged to protest the Bills drawn by the president and manager for £3,500 sterling; and exhibited a statement of accounts showing they had no alternative; and expressed their opinion strongly on the action taken by the Local Board; he likewise protested against their resolution not to transmit the minutes of their Meetings to his Board of Directors which they would consider a violation of the Deed of arrangement between the two Boards; the Local Board then adjourned to the following day to consider matter in the interim. At the Meeting on the 5th Mr. Byrne proposed that four bills for £1,000 each should be drawn at 3, 6, 8 and 10 months sight to meet those forwarded to the Class A Board; he had not been authorized by his Directors to make this proposal, but under the circumstances in which both Boards were placed, he felt it was the only plan that could be to prevent the undertaking from being broken up, and he was therefore willing to take the responsibility of the step feeling assured that his Directors would confirm his Acts. The Board to consult with the Banks relative to accepting such arrangement adjourned until the 8th. In the meantime Mr. Byrne and Mr. Thompson had conferred with thss Bank directors and were enable to report to the Meeting on the 8th that the Bank Directors were willing to comply with the proposal. The Charlotte County Bank Directors also acceded to the arrangement.
The chief source of the unfortunate difference between the Boards having been thus amicably disposed of, the Local Board, by Resolution, retracted their former resolution of withholding the Debentures and assured Mr. Byrne that they had been actuated under a full belief that the London Board had sufficient funds when the bills were sent back. Bills for £4,000 were forthwith drawn, and all minor differences were similarly settled.
The Local Board being now made fully sensible fo the critical position of the Class A company, as well as their own, and that the former being seriously involved in the undertaking to the threatening position of both; and it being made apparent that the deficiency which existed in the Capital of the Company to finish the road to Woodstock could not be provide for in the Province, or met by their Company.
The Board resolved to authorize the Class A Company to obtain by legislative enactment such increase to their powers as would be necessary to complete the entire road, to Woodstock under their sole charge and control, and would surrender all rights, titles, powers, and privileges to the Class A shareholders, to ratify which a special Meeting of the Class B shareholders would be called, when a requisition to that effect should be received from the London board, who were required to give satisfactory assurance of their being able to complete the road.
It would appear that the English Company were not only able to construct the continuation to the Canadian frontier, as Br. Byrne when at Fredericton on the 24th November addressed a letter to His Excellency the Lieut. Governor containing a proposal he had been authorized to submit by some of the leading Firms and Capitalists of London who were prepared with and would be willing to advance the necessary capital for the construction and completion of a line of railway from Woodstock to the Canadian frontier. From calculations based on former surveys and cost of railroads in the United States it was considered that the Railway could be built for £6,000 sterling per mile, and the distance being about 120 miles, the required Capital would be £720,000. It was proposed that the St. Andrews and Quebec company should cede all rights, titles, etc., beyond Woodstock to a new Company, to which the Province should grant the same privileges and facilities as were accorded to the European and North American Railway Company, then building a road between Saint John and Shediac. Should this proposition meet with the sanction of the government Mr. Byrne would be prepared upon his return to England to make the necessary subscription lists, which would be paid before His Excellency in sufficient time to enable the Bills to be drawn up for the next Legislature, so that no time should be lost in commencing operations and carrying on both sections of the road at the same time, and thereby ensure a through opening at an early period. Now it is very certain that had this proposal been then entertained by the Government, and had Mr. Byrne succeeded in the formation of the Company of Capitalists who deputed him to make such a proposal, this road would have been built to Quebec, and would now be the Intercolonial Railway of the day; for surely the new Dominion Government would hardly contemplate a competitive “Military” road; however, it did not so turn out, and the question of route still remains uncertain and undecided.
The reply to Mr. Byrne’s proposal is here copied:
Secretary’s Office, Fredericton, Dec. 13, 1853
Sir, I have laid before the Lieut. Governor in council your letter of the 24th November last, suggesting a scheme for constructing a railroad between Woodstock and Quebec, and I am instructed by His Excellency to acquaint you that as the proposition involved a heavy expenditure by the Government in addition to existing obligations it cannot at present be favorably entertained.”
(Signed) J. R. Partelow
J. W. Byrne, Esq.


Previous to the receipt of the above the Company were put in possession of the following satisfactory information.
Fredericton, Dec. 2, 1853
Sir, I am directed by His Excellency the Lieut. Governor in Council to inform you that the application of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company for further issue of Provincial Debentures to the amount of seven thousand pounds sterling having been this day submitted to the Council, it was ordered that said Debentures do forthwith issue.
(Signed) John C. Alden, C. E. C.
Julius Thompson, Manager


The following statement shows the balance sheet to Dec. 31st, 1853.
London Board - £74,736.4s.4d.
Charlotte County Bank – 1, 489.6s.10d.
St. Stephen Bank – 1862.12s.11d.
Captain Robinson and others – 250.0s.0d.
J. C. Bennett – 5.5s.0d.
Alexander Light – 200.0s.0d.
2086 shares at £25 each – 52,150.0s.0d.
Total - £127,696.9s.1d.
Contingent and preliminary £4,693.9s.1d.
Construction 31,813.16s.4.
Jas. Sykes and Co. 70 miles
Contract – 35,584.2s.5d.
Ditto – 10 miles – 9,883.2s.3d.
All other expenses – 27, 889.7s.10d.
Due by Class B Shareholders – 17, 820.6s.10d.
Balance £127,693.9s.1d.


Towards a total expenditure of £109,863.11s.3d. by the Company to this date. The Class B shareholders had only subscribed the sum of £5,520,13s.2d. And irrespective of Engineering, the office expenses and salaries were £2,867,6s.0.d
The breeze between the two boards had scarcely subsided into a calm, when signs of a threatening squall arose between the Local Board and the Contractors. On the 11th May 1854 the Secretary under instructions from the President notified each Director of a Special Meeting of the Board to be held on the 18th inst. For the purpose of determining on the propriety of making an Entry under the Contract.
On this same day a Board Meeting had been held in London at which the following resolution was passed.
“The London Board having observed with surprise the small amount of the March Estimate (£242.4s.9d.), it was moved by Mr. Sharpe, seconded by Mr. Mandsley and carried. The Board at St. Andrews be requested to urge the contractors to use greater expediency on the prosecution of the works.”
(Signed) J. W. Byrne, Secretary
the following day the London Secretary wrote to the Manager enclosing the above resolution and asked “What about the land? The Shareholders are becoming clamorous about it.” The Directors expressed no opinion on your proposal to stop at 40 miles. They appear rather inclined to make an effort to carry it to Woodstock, but how I am not in a position yet to say.”
On the 26th May the London Secretary again urged upon getting the land. “I am to beg you will draw the attention fo your directors to the paramount importance of insisting for our rights. We must now raise money somewhere, and that I take it, must be from the land or our Shareholders, but how can we attempt to get it from either without having possession fo the land. Formerly perhaps it was more a matter of convenience, that we should have a Deed of Grants; now it has become of vital importance to the existence of the undertaking.”
We will now turn back to the Board Meeting of the 18th May. Mr. Wohlhaupter the Government Director had protested by telegraph against its being then held, on account of his inability to attend; the business was however proceeded with.


Oct 21, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835.
By W. M. Buck
Third period 1850 – 1860
The Board having gone into the consideration of the proposition to make an entry under the contract, the Contractors not having complied with the chief Engineer’s notice to them on the 30th May to place 1000 men and 250 horses upon the work within fourteen days, from the date thereof, resolved that all entry be immediately made by the Company under the 12th clause of the Contract, and that the works be proceeded with by the Company with as much dispatch as possible. The Contractors at this period had been advanced by the London Board the sum of £8000, against which all subsequent estimates were to be placed with the amount advanced was worked out consequently this entry was afterwards considered as somewhat premature; Messrs. Sykes and Co. on the 25th May protested against this entry.
At a meeting of the Directors on the 16th June the Secretary produced letters from Captain Robinson, G. D. Street, Harris H. Hatch, and William Whitlock, directors, tendering their resignations, also a letter from Julius Thompson, notifying his intention to resign his position as Manager at the end of the year; all of which were accepted by the New Board of Directors elected at the general meeting of Stockholders. The Hon. Harris Hatch was elected President for the ensuing year; a new Board being then organized, as a matter of course, the acts of the former Board were highly censored, and represented as condemnatory in a lengthy letter addressed to Earl Fitzwilliam, Chairman of the London Board. At a subsequent Board Meeting held on the 26th June, the services of Mr. Thompson as Manager were dispensed with. A later English Mail, however, having brought letters from the London Board addressed to Mr. Thompson as Manager of the Company, he refused to give up possession of them to the Secretary, whereupon the board had to apply to the London Secretary for duplicate copies of the correspondence.
The London Board were informed by the Local Secretary’s letter of the 15th July that the new Board of Directors were then doing all they could to arrange an amicable settlement with the Contractors, who had been permitted a re-entry on the line, in order that the work might progress more speedily, and there was every reason to believe that such a desirable object would shortly be accomplished.
The Local Board having made application in August for a further issue of Debentures, the Government took objection to the statement of accounts on the same ground as formerly, but His Excellency in Council being fully sensible of the importance of the work, and the responsibility attaching to the issue of Debentures, appointed the Honorable Messrs. Chandler, Hazen and Partelow, as a Committee of Council to visit St. Andrews, and investigate the Company’s accounts and general operations, and make such inquiries as they should deem necessary. These gentlemen met the Board of Directors on September 7th and proceeded with their examination at the Close of which they informed the Directors that their Report would be immediately forwarded to the Council. It appeared that the Hon. Committee, during their investigation animadverted severely upon the Local board having no detailed account of the expenditure of the London Board, and expressed their dissatisfaction of any advance of money having been made by that Board to Messrs. Sykes and Co. in England without the knowledge and consent of the Local Board and declining to consider the amount so advanced as a proper expenditure, the Council had refused the issue of debentures.
The Local Board and the Contractors did not, after all, get along very amicably, the latter demanded an arbitration on disputed claims on both Contracts, which on a payment of £1,500 to the Labourers and other workmen, was to be waived, but which, after a payment had been made, was attempted to be renewed; the Board then served a notice upon the contractors preparatory to making an entry under the contract.
The Directors afterwards concluded to run the road, so far opened, for traffic, and appointed a Committee to confer with the Contractors with respect to running the road, as they still held possession of the Locomotive and cars, given to them for their use in the construction of the first 26 miles. The Directors also resolved that the affairs of the company were in such a precarious state as to call for immediate conference, with the Condon Board, and wrote to request that Board to send out a Delegate to New Brunswick with full powers to confer with the Government and the Board. They next authorized the Chief Engineer to serve a notice upon the Contractors to place a sufficient force of men and horses upon the line within the term stipulated by the Contract, and the Contractors having refused to comply therewith the Chief Engineer made an entry and took possession of the works in the name of Company; the board then issued the following, by hand bills signed by the President and Secretary:
“Public notice is hereby given that the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company have taken possession of the line of Railway under contract between the Company and contractors, under the entry provided for in the said contract, and that the Company will prosecute all parties intermeddling with or trespassing on the said line.”
After taking possession of the line the next question was now to proceed with the work, and furnish the means for so doing. In a letter addressed to the London Secretary recapitulating what had been done between the 13th September and 17th October, the Directors make the following proposal in view of the great prospects of a large traffic. The Secretary wrote thus:
“In concluding this letter my Directors cannot but express their full assurances that were the works completed 30 miles, the Company would realize a large amount of traffic, and their land contiguous to it be greatly enhanced in value; they therefore press upon your directors the necessity of cooperating with them in effecting this most desirable purpose by an advance of the £5,750 recommended in the Engineer’s Report, the Board were pledging itself to remit the amount tout of the first debentures obtained from the Government.”
The Board next entered into a contract with Mr. Nathan Smart for finishing the road bed and laying the tract between the 25th mile at the Fredericton Road Crossing, and the 29th miles at Lawrence’s Station; then issued a writ of repluvin? In name of the Company against Messrs. Sykes and Co. to take possession of the Locomotive and tender, platform car, dump car, and a small lorry car previously transferred to them for their use.
In accordance with a previous Resolution of the Local Board requiring the London Board to send out a Delegate to the Province to investigate and arrange the Company’s affairs, Mr. Byrne the Secretary was again instructed to proceed to St. Andrews, and having arrived presented himself at the Meting of the Board held on 12th December. He submitted the Resolution of his Board authorizing him to confer with the Provincial government and the Colonial Board, and negotiate all matter appertaining to the Company. He suggested the appointment of a Committee to audit the accounts, and protested against the Board transferring the Debentures to the Government in exchange for cash payments; the Board having already received £6,000 sterling from the government in lieu of Debentures, and for which a stock certificate was given: £2,000 of this amount had been paid by Mr. Wohlaupter, Government Director, to the Contractor’s laborers.
Various Board Meetings were held up to January 10th, 1855. At this date Mr. Byrne made a proposal in writing on behalf of Class A Shareholders to accept the Resolution passed by the Board on the 6th December 1852, and at once taken the whole charge and control of the road to Woodstock in their own hands, and to allow the Class B Shareholders a limited time to pay up the full amount of their stock and continue as Shareholders in the new Company.
On motion of George L. Hatheway, seconded by Mr. F. H. Todd (of St. Stephen): “Resolved, that the proposition of Mr. Byrne submitted this day be not entertained.”
A week elapsed before another meeting was held, and on the 17th January, Mr. Byrne who had been in communication with government, informed the Board, that although the arrangements he had so far made with the Government were rather of a confidential nature, he had no hesitation in stating that the government would give its support to the Class A Shareholders in carrying on the works to completion, and that a special meeting of the Class B Shareholders should be called to sanction the measure.
The Board were however of opinion that Mr. Byrne was exceeding his instructions in taking such steps, and he was requested to retire; whereupon the Board came to the conclusion not to move in the matter until they consulted with the Government, for which purpose Messrs. Henry Frye and j G. Stevens (of St. Stephen) were appointed a Committee to wait upon His Excellency in Council.
It was also resolved that at this meeting that the Directors be allowed one pound sterling for each and every attendance; and the Directors from St. Stephen in addition thereto, be allowed one pound sterling for travelling expenses.
A retrospective glance may here be taken what Mr. Byrne had done during his sojourn, in the matter of his negotiation with the Government.
On the 16th December 1854 he addressed a letter to the Hon. S. L. Tilley, Provincial Secretary, stating through what means and for what reason he had come to the provinces: that he had then been a fortnight at St. Andrews without being able to get more than one preliminary meeting of the Directors, at which nothing had been done, but the appointment at his suggestion, of a committee to audit the accounts; but which Committee he could not get together; that the invitation for a Delegate from England seemed to be premature, as the Board had really nothing to propose towards the further prosecution of the works; that it was manifest the English shareholders had been led into error as to the amount of Capital requisite for building the road, to Woodstock, and that he local Board were quite unable to assist in carrying out the project; that the English Company possessed the full confidence of the English public, having Earl Fitzwilliam and Lord Ashburton among the Directors; so that any arrangement effected between the Provincial Government and the London Board would be strictly adhered to; and being empowered to negotiate with the Government he would gladly wait upon the executive and devise the means of completing the road.
Again on the 28th December he addressed a second letter to the Provincial Secretary, and by request, a permission of the council gave a statement of he position of the affairs, of the Company to be submitted at the next meeting on the 4th proxo, from which he said it was quite evident that nearly the whole of the existing capital of the Company had been expended, and no portion of the rod had been opened for traffic. He had on his arrival at St. Andrews had made an entry on the Line, and the Messrs. Sykes Contract was thereby suspended, while the Company were not prepared with money or materials to carry on the work themselves. The safety of the capital invested by the English company and the Government demanded that some scheme should be immediately devised for the vigorous completion of the Work. The proposal previously made to the Local Board was here inserted in detail.
Further Stock in Company to the amount of £80,000 to be at once subscribed for in England, and paid up as fast as necessary for the rapid completion of the Section to Woodstock; said Stock to be guaranteed by the province, an annual interest of 6 percent for 25 years, in the same manner as the existing guarantee; the remainder of the Debentures to be placed at the disposal of the Class A Directors, and the lands to be granted to which they were then entitled, and further grants from time to time, according to the expenditure upon the work: The line to be completed to Woodstock by the year 1860, and if not then constructed, to become the property of the Government without any accountability to the Shareholders, the foregoing is the substance of Mr. Byrne’s proposal to the government.
The local Board saying by a resolution, previously mentioned, showed no disposition to confirm Mr. Byrne’s negotiations or proposals to the Government, and having refused to give him copies of the Board minutes, he left for England on the 30th January; on which day before he took his departure, he addressed a letter, publicly, to the Class B Stockholders informing them of what he had done, and by what authority, during his term as Secretary to, and Delegate from the Class A Shareholders. The concluding paragraph of his letter is here quoted:
“One or two recent acts of your Board, I have been compelled to protest against, is fraught with injury to the interest of the company, and passed without the sanction of the Class A Directors, as required by the Deed of Arrangement existing between the two boards. One is a pledge given to construct a Branch Line to St. Stephen before the main line to Woodstock is completed, and the other—the transfer of the road in its present state, with the locomotive and other property thereon, belonging to the Company, to Mr. John Wilson as an individual, to operate for his own benefit, for an indefinite period, which may materially interfere with the future operations of the company. Should the stockholders at the special meeting to be held, adopt the plan which I have consented to on behalf of Class A and the Legislature at their request, pass the necessary amendments and alterations in the Acts of Incorporation, I have no hesitation in assuring you that sufficient capital will be at once raised to proceed vigorously with the completion of the line to Woodstock, and that with regard to the present holders of Class B stock, such equitable arrangements will be made by Class A either by repayment of the amount paid in, or allowing Stock to that amount to be still held in the Company, as will satisfy all parties.
A special general meeting of the Stockholders was held pursuant to notion at the Town Hall, St. Andrews, Friday 8th march, J. H. Whitlock in the chair. The object of this special meeting was to consider the expediency of transferring to the Class A shareholders the rights privileges etc rested in the corporation, to enable them to complete the railroad from St. Andrews to Woodstock. The following gentlemen were then elected Directors to fill vacancies by those removed viz: Capt. J. J. Robinson, George D. Street, William Whitlock, J. W. Street, H. H. Hatch, George D. Thompson.
Out of 49 stockholders present, there were 41 voted in favor of, and 8 against, the transfer to Class A. the total number of votes thereon, including proxies, was for the motion 1191 against 140.
At a meeting the third and last Board held 10th march, Capt. J. J. Robinson was elected President for the ensuing year; and immediately resolved that Julius Thompson be requested to resume his former office and duties as Manager, his services having been improperly dispensed with; the Secretary to communicate that change. Also, that the services of George D. Street as Solicitor be resumed.
Also, that the former Resolutions passed on the 2nd and 10th of January authorizing Mr. John Wilson to have possession and use of the Locomotive and cars be rescinded as directed by the Stockholders at the Special meeting, the Company to resume possession of all such property Mr. Wilson had thus obtained.
Also, that the seal of the Company be affixed to the petition to the Legislature for an act authorizing the transfer to Class A by resolution passed at special meeting. The Bill for the transfer to was however rejected afterwards by the House of Assembly.
Mr. Nathan Smart had continued at work under his contract up to the 31st march, at which date according to the Chief Engineer’s Estimate and Certificate the Company owed him the sum of £1119.3s.
It will be remembered that the last issue of Debentures for £1000 had not been forwarded to England by the former Board but had been appropriated in the Province against which procedure the London Secretary had protested when at St. Andrews. The third Board of Directors had then made application to the Government for a further issue of £7000 Debentures, and afterwards instructed their secretary to notify the London Directors, through their Secretary, as follows: “I am directed by the Board to communicate to you that in the present situation of the Company it will be impossible to send the whole to your Board unless you can manage in the meantime to advance us some money on account of them to meet the pressing liabilities on this side of the water. We will require at least £3000 to pay what must be met here, and I hope therefore, if our arrangements have been made before this reaches you, to raise funds in England to carry on the works, you will at once write me authorizing a Bill to be drawn for that sum on which we ? the money here and remit you all the Debentures we get issued. In order to secure our getting the money on the Bills here, you must send me Glynn’s consent to accept the Bills as your know ? from what has taken place before, they will not be discounted here.
The local Secretary next refers to a Bill drawn by Mr. Thompson upon the London Board for the arrears of salary due to him having been protested when it was well known the Local Board had no funds, and after all that had been done by them to carry out the views of the Englsih Company several of the Directors were consequently inclined to leave the Board and throw the whole affair up again and allow the London Board to fight their own battle: the Secretary in conclusion adds:
“It has certainly made them more determined athat you shall not get the Debentures unless they get money enough to pay off liabilities which they feel bound to see liquidated. The amount required £3000 could not have been incurred during the short term the third Board had up to then held office; they were liabilities inherited by their assumption of power in taking office, and as they had rescinded several resolutions of the past Board was very commendable, although the threat conveyed to the London Board to extract the means of liquidation, cannot be so considered; moreover it evidently showed symptoms of a revival of the old inimical feelings between the two Boards which was, apparently, a part also of the inheritance.
The London Board had a balance on hand 30th June, 1855 of only £879240. Amount Company liabilities as by settlement furnished to provincial Secretary 16th July 1955, sterling 204803.
The sum asked of the London Board was therefore £1000 in excess of the above.
Operations upon the road in the shape of Contract work were now entirely suspended with but little prospect of being resumed at an early day; the running of the road for traffic had also been abandoned. No debentures had been issued to the Company until the 3rd September, when Secretary Whitlock received only £2000 from the Government at Fredericton, and negotiated there with the commercial Bank at Saint John to be forwarded to England.


October 28, 1868
An Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its First Inception in 1835.
By W. M. Buck
Third period 1850 – 1860
Then held a meeting on the 5th when resolved that on account of the uncertainty of the future operations being resumed, it was inexpedient to continue the services of their officers; the Chief Engineer, his assistant, and the manager were accordingly notified in writing that their services would necessarily be dispensed with. During this month of September a Deputation arrived out from the London Board, composed of Mr. Ben Sharpe and Mr. Radcliffe, the Company’s solicitor, who were sent out to confer with the Government and the Board, yet, strange to say, returned to England without having had an official interview with one or the other.
The next General meeting of the Stockholders was held on May 6th, 1856, at which, a vote of thanks was passed to James Boyd, M. P. P. for Charlotte County, for the exertions during the previous session of the Legislature in obtaining the passage of the several Acts for the Company’s transfer and extension of ?, etc.
After the election of Directors it was resolved to authorize a transfer of the Corporate powers, privileges and facilities of the Company to Class A Company, or to a company in accordance with a scheme agreed to by the Class A Board of Directors; the Directors of Class B., and as the transfer Bill provided for the appointment of one or more Directors to enter into and execute an agreement for such transfer under the Seal of the Company, the President and two of the Directors were appointed for the purpose.
At the meeting of the Directors on 15th of May, a letter was read from the London Secretary informing the Board the a new Company had been organized in England for he completion of the Railway to Woodstock and that several influential gentlemen had joined the new Board; this intelligence was then received, as it might well be, with much satisfaction and as the act for extending the time for construction and completion contained a clause providing that £8000 should be spent within the year, it was of great importance that no time should be lost in commencing the work, and the London Board in carrying out the measures necessary for the completion of the transfer of all powers privileges and facilities to them. It was suggested to the London Board to delegate some person or persons to the Colony and arrange all preliminaries, and Mr. Byrne the Secretary was mentioned as one most fit for this important service, on account of the knowledge he had already obtained from his former visits. In accordance therefore with the expressed wishes of the Local Board, the London Directors deputed J. W. Byrne and josiah Bates, the latter of the new Company, to proceed to St. Andrews, these gentlemen presented themselves at the Board meeting held on the 18th of October as a deputation from the New Brunswick and Canada railway and Land Company(Limited) and the Class A shareholders of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway Company. Mr. Byrne read the minutes of the latter company, dated 28th September. He then submitted the Deed of Transfer between the three Companies executed by Class A shareholders and the New Company in England; but as no reference had been made therein to the Class B stockholders, independent of the Provincial Government Stock, in any provision made regarding such Stock, in the articles of association of the transferee Company, it was then and then mutually understood and agreed between the Local Board of Directors and Josiah Bates the Agent and Delegate, and J. W. Byrne, the Secretary of the transferee Company, that stock should be allotted in Class B in exchange for that then held by them provided application be made by the same within two months after notice in the Provincial Royal Gazette. It was then resolved that the agreement for transfer, as admitted, be approved and accepted by the Board in accordance with the resolutions passed at the general meeting held on the 6th of May.
The seal of the Company was accordingly affixed therein. The Deputation further explained to the Board that with regard to the original? Grant of 10,000 acres transferred by the Class B to the Class A Shareholders, in order to raise funds thereon to prevent a suspension of the work, it had been proposed by the Class B to transfer 20,000 by the latter of £10,000 which amount had been subscribed by Benj. Sharpe and six others; the New Company had allowed the bonus holders to retain the 10,000 acres previously transferred, they, with the exception of Mr. Sharpe, having surrendered all claim to the second 10,000 acres.
In the opinion of the Board the terms proposed by the new company and accepted by the St. Andrews and Quebec Company were ? and equitable to both classes of shareholders by the latter Company, and especially towards Class A, whose losses would have been irreparably the greatest had the old Company been broken up and dissolved.
From the minutes of this, the ? of a Board of Directors in the province, the following information is further obtained:
That the Deputation from England in September 1855 comprised of Messrs. Sharpe and Radcliffe had the effect of damaging the interest of the Company with the Provincial Government; that the correspondence then conducted by Mr. Sharpe with the Provincial Secretary was injudicious and improper and had an injurious effect; that the Board and entirely disapproved of Mr. Sharpe’s proceeding; that the deputation ignored the existence of a Board, and acted on their own responsibility which resulted as could only be expected, in a complete failure; that messrs. Sharpe and Radcliffe had spent but two days at St. Andrews, and nine days at Fredericton having made no investigation into the affairs of the Company were consequently unable on their return to England to submit any other than the meagre and worthless Report, that had been inflicted upon Earl Fitzwilliam.
Messrs. Byrne and Bates next proceeded to Fredericton where they had several interviews with His Excellency in Council, and completed the object of their mission most agreeably and satisfactorily.
During their visit to Fredericton, and after their business had been concluded with the Executive Council, Mr. Julius Thompson was appointed by them as Manager to the new company and the writer who was then engaged ?, as Engineer to the Board of Works Department, was also appointed by them as Chief Engineer to the same Company, both appointments to be subject to the confirmation of the Directors of the new company after Messrs. Byrne and Bates returned to England; they took their departure on the 10th of November. The appointment of Manager and Chief Engineer were subsequently confirmed by the Board of Directors at London; and instructions were received to proceed with the works at once.
The repairs on the 25 miles ? the first contract, and was let to Mr. George Wrigley, it comprised such work as excavations in clearing out cuttings, with side drains, widening embankments, additional culvers, ? up rail, and the continuous hemlock sills and relaying rails on cross sleepers of cedar and hacmatac; putting down siding and additional track in Depot yards together with ? ballasting; portions of the trestle bridging of hemlock were also repaired. Amount paid £3201.
To provide for relaying the worst portions of the track various contracts were made during the first winter for a sufficient supply of sleepers, in all about 43,000 at an expenditure of £2,120. The finishing up of broken work between the 25th and 32nd miles was let in two contracts, the first section to Messrs. Hinton and Megget, which cost £1475, and the second section to Mr. Thomas Wibberly, which amounted to £942. The ballasting and track laying on those sections as far as Lawrence’s, as also the ballasting of the upper portion of the first 25 mile section, was let by contract to Mr. S. H. Whitlock, and this work amounted to £1689.
On the 8th day of December a contract was entered into with Mr. George S. Marah, of Calais, State of Maine, for the grading of the road bed and track laying from the commencement of the 32nd mile to the end of the 39th mile, and then known as his 8 mile contract in execution of which he received a total ? and certified estimate for the sum of £10,602. The value of cross sleepers required to lay from the 25th mile to the end of this contract was estimated at £2,410. The ballasting of this 8 mile section was subsequently let to Mr. Nathan Smart who had the use of the Company’s rolling stock to do the same, and which amounted to £2,396. The opening of the first 34 miles of the road to Barber Dam Section took place on October 1st, 1857 on which occasion there was a general holiday excursion. The train left St. Andrews Station at 9:45 consisting of two engineers, two break vans, one passenger car, and 22 short platform cars fitted up to accommodate 34 person each; the number of passengers was upwards of 600. An excellent run up was made in two hours, including two stoppages, one for wood and water, and the other at the Fredericton Road Station (25th Mile) to take up the provincial Secretary and Surveyor General; after partaking of a substantial repast and several complimentary speeches had been made, the train returned 3:45 pm, stopped at several stations on the way down, and arrived at St. Andrews at 6 o’clock pm, after a very pleasant day’s trip and everybody quite pleased. During this period a contract was completed for the extension of the line from the terminus proper at St. Andrews along the Eastern shore of the inner Harbour to the Market Wharf, comprising embankments, block bridging and track laying, by Mr. William Craig, the expenditure amounted to £1711. On the first 25 miles there was, for all such work and items as fence poles, and fencing, sleepers, farm gates, crossings, general repairs, line extensions, station buildings, water works and maintenance, a total expenditure up to the 31st December 1858 of £19,748.
The clearing of the line for 100 feet in width on the 21st mile section terminating at Deer Lake Station was let by Contract to Mr. George S. Marah for £2,030 and the grading and track laying of the first 11 miles of this section ending at Cranberry brook (30th mile) was contracted for by the said George S. Marah who was paid on final measurement and certificate the sum of £16,327.8s.5d.
The second section of 10 miles on the 21st mile section as also the succeeding 5 miles to Canterbury was let by Contract to Messrs. Meer? And Williams of Lower Canada, who, after their work had been about two thirds finished retired ? an absconding manner. The remainder of their work was completed by the Company under the same sub-contractors tat previously existed. The amount expended on these two contracts, embracing 15 miles, exclusive of the track laying and ballasting, was £36,257.16s.10d. In addition to the grading, the sum expended on sleepers, track laying and ballasting on the whole 26 miles terminating at Canterbury was £8,220.4s.6d. the laying of ? track and ballasting from Cranberry Brook to Canterbury, 15 miles, was let by contract to Messrs. Duncan and William MacDonald of Upper Canada to whom also was let the grading of the road bed from Canterbury to Eel River Station, 10 miles. The line was opened through to Canterbury for traffic in December 1858. The Messrs. McDonald suspended operations during the midsummer of 1859, after which there was a suspension of the works for some time. On November the 10th of this year, Manager Thompson left for England to confer with the London Board of Directors, relative to entering into a new contract, with some Canadian parties for completing the road from Canterbury to the Richmond terminus on the Woodstock and Houlton road. An Agent of the party, Mr. Bradley, accompanied him. A specification for the new work was furnished by the writer of this, and a contract and Deed of agreement were drawn and with the specification printed in England, and signatures and seals attached thereon. The Manager and Mr. Bradley returned on April 1860, followed immediately afterwards by an Agent from the London board, Mr. Henry Osburn, Civil Engineer, to inspect and report upon the condition of the road and suspended works, and to see the new Contract properly ratified and immediately commenced: but, strange to relate, the Canadian party backed out of the entire arrangement made in England and declined to confirm the acts of their own agent while there.
Mr. Osburn subsequently concluded a contract with the Messrs. Walker and Johnston for the completion of the whole of the work requiring ? repairs and left in an unfinished state and for the full completion also of the line forward to Richmond.
Mr. Osburn was afterwards appointed Manager and Engineer of the whole road by the London Board of Directors. In his hands was then left the final completion of an undertaking that had struggled with years of adversity and in his hands is now left “this strange eventful history” of the original St. Andrews and Quebec Railway.
By his predecessor and friend, Walter Buck
St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Dec. 24th, 1867.


Oct. 28, 1868
On our first page is published the conclusion of Mr. Buck’s well written and interesting “Account of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad from its first inception in 1835 up to 1860,” which no doubt was read with interest by those connected with the work. Alas, its originator and promoters are “gone the way of all flesh;” had they lived to see its completion and branches, it is probably that the trade which they prophesied for St. Andrews would not have been diverted from it; but, as we years ago looked forward to this Port being made the terminus of a Railway from Canada to the Atlantic, we still do so—notwithstanding the North Shore route. A commercial line we will yet have.