Old St. Andrews



Education in St. Andrews



Education in St. Andrews


Female Education
Mrs. Howe respectfully acquaints her friends, and the inhabitants of St. Andrews in general, that she intends commencing a school on the 1st of September next, in which she proposes the instruction of pupils in the following branches of female education: viz:
            The English and French languages, sacred and modern geography, composition, and parsing, reading, writing, and arithmetic, painting, drawing, embroidering, tambouring, working upon muslins, plain sewing and marking.
            The utmost attention will be shewn, as well to the morals as to the improvement of such pupils, as may be entrusted to her care; and by exerting her best endeavours to give general satisfaction, she hopes to merit the patronage now solicited.—St Andrews Herald, August 15, 1820


Sept 18, 1833
Saint Andrews Lending Library
Those persons who have had books in their possession, belonging to the Lending Library for an unreasonable perood, say six months or perhaps a year, are politely requested to return the same forthwith, and prevent any harsh construction which may be entertained of their motives for the detention.
            The Library will be open every Sunday morning from 9 till elevent at the Grammar School buildng for the purpose of receiving them.


April 17, 1834
The Rev. Mr. Ford begs leave to announce that he will commence his astronomical lectures this evening, Thursday at 8 o’clock, in Mrs. Pauls Hall; the course to consist of nine lectures, each of which occupying in the delivery of it, with illustrations on the Orrery, and Tellurium, or seasons machine, about one hour and a quarter.
            Terms for the course:
            Family Tickets 25s
            Tickets admitting one lady and one gentleman 15s
            Gentlemen’s Tickets 10s
Tickets admitting to one lecture 2s 6d. The Tickets to be had at the Post Office where Mr. Campbell has very obligingly undertaken to dispose of them.
April 10th, 1834


March 5, 1835
The Misses Watts respectfully intimate to the inhabitants of St. Andrews, and its vicinity, that they have opened a school, for the instruction of young ladies in the usual branches of an English Education; and also in plain and ornamental needlework.
May 19, 1835


April 17/1834
Lectures on astronomy at Mrs. Paul's Hall.


May 15/1834
New school house to be built.
Madras School already open. Schoolmistress Jane Harvey from Saint John.


April 2, 1835
Apprentice Wanted
Wanted  boy, about 12 or 14 years of age, of good moral habits, who has received a tolerable good English education, as an Apprentice to the Printing business, good references will be required, as to character, etc. Enguire at this Office.


Sept 1/1838
Madras School House to be built. Plan described. Available for viewing in James Street's store (Smuggler's Wharf).


Jan 7, 1842
Temperance Procession
Pursuant to notice and according to announcement in the last number of this paper, the procession of the members of the Catholic total Abstinence Society took place on Saturday last the Instant. It was a glorious sight, well timed, commencing with the New Year, and well deserving of the warmest approbation of the philanthropist, and every well wisher of humanity. it was a glorious sight we repeat, to see some hundred so persons of all ages and sexes, an indication and guarantee, that hundreds upon hundreds will follow their brilliant example, to see them by a most public act in the face of the world, ratify the promise they had previously made, ever to abandon the use of intoxicating spirits, the great source of evils and abuses.
            After the celebration of High Mass in the Catholic church, the members of the Society retired into the new and commodious School House, and having suspended their medals, appointed the flag and banner bearers, and ? on the line of route, they were drawn out into line and marched in the following order:


June 16/1847
Mr. E Forest holding singing school at James Stevenson's Hotel.


July 7, 1847
Singing School
Mr. E. Forest, respectfully informs the inhabitants of St. Andrews and it svicinity, that he has opened a school for the instruction of vocal muisic upon the highly approved and analytic system of Pestalozzi. Having been for several years a student in the Boston Macademy of Music, under Professors Mason and Webbe, during which time he acquired an intimate knowledge of the elementary principles of the science, combined with experience in teaching, he trusts that he ill be able to afford the highest instruction to those who may favour him with their patronage. The Parish School house has been engaged for the School—Hours of attendance from 7 till 9 pm on Tuesday and Thursday evenings.
            Music set and arrangmed for the piano forte, etc. For terms etc please apply at Mr. James Stevenson’s Hotel.
            June 9, 1847


Oct 29/1851
SS Academy to open in November. Madras School, SA, to open next week.


Aug 27, 1856
Fire. We have to record the occurrence of another fire in our town which took place last Wednesday night about 10 o’clock, on the premises of Mr. T. Berry in William Henry Street. It broke out on the outside of a building occupied by Mr. Berry and our contemporary Mr. Clinch, of the Provincialist, respectively as a carpenter’s shop and printing office; this, as well as an adjoining building, used as a school house were totally consumed, Mr. Berry losing all his tools, but he printing materials and other effects of Mr. clinch we are glad to say were saved, with a little damage.


Oct 14/1857
From Carleton Sentinel:
Our readers may wish to know something about St. Andrews. It is a cleanly, pleasant-looking town, well laid out, covering a very considerable area, but not at all compactly built. At one time St. Andrews was the center of a very large and flourishing trade; but of late years it has been going behind hand, and there are none of those indications of improvement and progress to be found which in such a marked manner characterize Woodstock. But it must now, we should suppose, rapidly grow and improve, becoming, as it is a grand outlet for the trade and produce of the wealthiest portions of the province.
            The population of St. Andrews is about 2000. It has four churches, one grammar school, and seven common schools; likewise two printing offices, that of the Standard and Provincialist. Its principal manufacturing establishments consist of a brewery, an iron-foundry, and a steam mill: this latter, we understand, has been recently purchased by the RR company--there are several very good houses of entertainment, we were told: of our friend Bradford's we can speak confidently.


Oct 14/1863
Bayside a prospering district: Baptist church, new post office, store, commodious school house, agricultural Hall. F. W. Bradford's premises handsome. Rev. A. D. Thompson pretty conservatory. Many residences show elegance and refinement absent elsewhere in province. Mr. Rideout employs large number of men in his shipyard.


July 6/1864
Parish School--Trustees James Campbell, Thomas Sime, Samuel Watts. 1837


SA Grammar School. Rev. Cassilis. 1837
Evening School, Timothy Harley. Oct 1837


Aug 27/1873
New school building corner of Carleton and William. Description. Caddy’s school. With Bell tower. See photocopy.


Sept 24/1873
The large school building has been completed, for some time, and will be opened as soon as the stoves are put up.


Oct 1/1873
New school house opened. (Not Grammar School, which is being renovated)


Nov 4/1874
Ref. to new fire tank on “Wm Henry Street,” opposite new school.


Dec. 16, 1886
Reminiscences of Old St. Andrews
A Paper Found Among the Effects of the late John Campbell,, Dated June, 1876
The Bay Pilot’s publication of the names of the several streets in St. Andrews {where?} reminds one of the old time boys of the Shire Town, of its appearance as far back as his recollection dates, say nearly seventy years ago. Water Street at that time was pretty well dotted with buildings, while the other parallel streets had but few houses, and the streets at right angles were but little improved beyond Queen Street. Taking the easterly side of Water street at the corner of Harriet, was the residence of Peter Stubs, Esq., who at the time carried on mercantile business in the old red store at the corner of Adolphus and Water street one the west side. The next buildings in the street were between Mary and Adolphus streets, vis: Springate’s, Goldsmith’s White and Shaw; crossing Adolphus street, Mrs. Garnett occupied a house on the corner, Mr. Campbell, a residence in the centre of the block, approached by a carriage way, and Miss McKenzie resided on the corner of Elizabeth Street; diagonally opposite was the residence of John Wilson,, Esq., passing down Water street was the several buildings occupied by McGrath, Patterson the watchmaker, Muir, Parkinson, with Mrs. Strang’s house on the corner, in which C. Scott had his office and store fronting Edward Street,; crossing Edward Street on the east side was Mrs. Mowatt’s residence, George Mowatt’s store, the Parker House, owned I think b Nicholas Johnson, Dr. McStay’s, McEleary’s, Mrs. Berry and Berrys corner; on the opposite side of the street, in front of the Mrs. Mowatt’s, was Coroner McLaughlan, Mrs. Johnston, John A. Young, Getty, Wiliard, Southwick, and Sharples on the corner below. William street was Merrill’s Bakery, standing some short distance back from Water Street, then Mrs. Campbell’s, a small building occupied afterward by Campbell and McKena, the Episcopal Church, Mr. Henderson’s or the Whitlock house, Rankins P. Keleher, and Jere’h Currier on the corner of King Str. On the opposite side of Water street in the same block was Happy Corner, Boyd and Boyle’s store, Mrs. Boyd’s afterward, Mrs. R. Wilson’s Boarding House, Capt. A Strahan and Daniel McMaster on the corner; below McMaster’s corner on King street, was the large store of Richard Hasluck.
            The old Market House stood near the water on the south side of King Street, and the old Jail on the east side of Water street, passing up King street on your right was Ordway’s Hall, Capt. Pauls and Sheriff Andrews, and on the left Johnson’s Sadlery. Mr. Hatch’s office, and the residence of Mr. Barber with Mr. Stymest’s residence on the corner of Queen street, and his tannery on the opposite corner, above this there were no buildings excepting the Grammar School and Mr. Wm. Boyds. The residences of Dr. Frye, Col. Hatch, Mr. Willard, Mr. Ames and Mr. D. D. Morrison, being subsequently erected; returning to and passing still down Water street on the left was the residence of (old) Mr. Wyer on the east side [future railway hotel?] ; Mrs. McPhail’s and Hannah and Lambert’s on the west. The old Pagan store stood on the corner of William street, then came Capt. John Mowatt’s, Mrs. Harvey’s, etc, and on the opposite side the residence of John Campbell, Esq, who afterwards resided where the Post Master now lives, and his building was occupied by Mr. Quinn the blacksmith.
            Below William street was Mr. Hatch’s residence, Houbtman’s Furrier shop and still further down (but my memory fails me here,) were the several residences of the Thompson’s, Paul’s, Meloney’s, Stinson’s, Treadwell’s, segee, Ross, and if I mistake not the lower building was the residence of Capt. Peter Smith, who with his son met the melancholy fate of so many of our St. Andrews men, “who went down to the sea” in ships. The writer can speak feelingly on this subject, 3 of his younger brothers finding their resting places beneath the ocean waves.
            But to return to the good old town, taking Queen and Harriet street as a starting point, we have the old Pound at the head of the former, and vacant lots till you reach R. Surye’s house on the corner of Adolphus street, Mr. Dunn’s residence on the diagonal corner, Trimle on the east and Capt. James McMaster on the west side of Queen street on the corner of Elizabeth street; Mr. H. O’Hara, Collector Campbell, S. Watts, occupying residence on the east side of Queen street, and Mr. James Berry on the corner of Queen and William, a private boarding house occupied the opposite corner, and the Madras School house standing between it and the Merrill house on Water street; Mrs. Curry and Mrs. Putnam lives on the east side of Queen street below King, and Capt. Raison and Major Wyer on the next block;; Mr. Pagan resided on the corner of Queen and Frederick streets; Mrs. Jas. Clarke resided on Edward street above Queen up toward the barracks Mr. Cassillis occupied the house afterward owned by L. Donaldson, Esq., and Mr. William Hatch resided near Harriet and Augusta streets. Mrs. McRea and James Clark lived on the corner of Harriet and Parr streets. Mr. Crozier on Mary street, R. Haddock, etc., on Carlton street, Mr. Thomas Whitlock, and Mr. Doucettt somewhere eon Carlton, or Princess streets, and Mr. D. W. Jack, W. Kerr and John Aymar on Montague street between Sophia and Princess; Capt. George P. McMaster on Parr street and Mrs. Keltie and Mrs. Chandler on Frederick Street.
            The R. C. church, Greenock Church, the old Charlotte County Bank, the Douglas and Wilson brick cottages, Dr. Ally’s residence, the large buildings in front of the Episcopal church were all erected at later periods.
            These reminiscences bring up many sad and painful memories. How many of the old families have wholly passed away, while so man others are scattered to all parts of the habitable globe. Among the old familiar names such as Stubs, Garnett, Strang, Scott, Rait, Sharples, McLaughlan, Alanshaw, McMaster, Hasluck, Willard, Monroe, Aimes, Stymast, Dunn, Southwick, Walton, Clarke, Boyd, Johnson, Wilson, Gilchrist, Rodgers, Todd, Miller, Jones, Kerr, Douglas, none are now to be found amongst your townsmen.
            In the foregoing I have mentioned the names of several parties formerly residing or doing business on Water Street between Edward and William streets, it may not therefore be out of place to remark the numbers of their descendants who have found their way to this coat. Beginning with Coroner McLaughlan, who removed to, and resided in  Boston for several years before his death, one of the first and most esteemed acquaintances that I met in Sand Francisco, was his eldest daughter, who is now residing with her husband, one of the elders of the church with which I have associated at Oakland. The youngest daughter of Mrs. Sharples, married to a prominent lawyer in this city also resides here, a son and widowed daughter of Mr. Willard, Capt. Gordon Berry and two brothers, three grandsons of Mr. Willard, three grandchildren of Dr. McStay, and all the large family of the late John A. Young, either reside in the city or on the coast, while a gentleman who will be remembered as having served his apprenticeship in the same block, Mr. Joshua Lyle, resides with his family in a magnificent residence on Vantes Avenue; his eldest son and son-in-law being among the few lucky ones who participated the Flood and O’Brien in the great “bonanza” mines. The lower pat of the town is well represented here from the old standard families of Stinson, Maloney, Treadwell, O’Neill, and many others too numerous to mention, but I have already trespassed too much upon your columns.
            “All the persons, mentioned in the foregoing letter, including the writer thereof, have joined the great majority, and of the number the following only are represented in the town by lineal descendants bearing the names, Shaw, Campbell, Muir, Mowatt, McStay, W/hitlock McMaster, Paul, Andrews, Hatch, Frye, Wyer, Hannah, Harvey, Quinn, Meloney, Stinson, Treadwell, Ross, Smith, Clarke and Haddock.—Ed. Bay Pilot.”


May 9/1889
Inventory of SA--park, marine hospital, two large summer hotels, half-a-dozen smaller hotels open year round, 5 churches, 3 lawyers, 4 doctors, 6 school teachers, 2 livery stables, shoe factory, large dry goods store, foundry, carriage factory, "a dozen or more grocery, clothing, boot and hoes and hardware stores, 2 hairdressing shops, an electric lighting company," 2 drug stores, several blacksmith shops, a post and telegraph office, 2 meat markets, a Masonic lodge, a division of the Sons of Temperance, a brass band, a cricket and baseball club, a detachment of the Salvation Army.


Jan 23/1890
Hon B. R. Stevenson Dead
A Brief Sketch of his Career. Buried with Masonic Honors
The deceased was in his fifty-fifth year, having been born in SA, April 10, 1835. the grammar school here supplied him with his early education. In 1854 he graduated from the university of NB with the degree of BA. Six years later he was called to the bar of the Province. In 1867 Mr. Stevenson resigned his position of registrar of probates for Charlotte county and accepted nomination for a seat in the Local legislature, to which he was elected. he was returned in 1870 and in 1871 he was appointed a member of the executive council of the province with the position of surveyor general. he occupied that important position until 1878, when he resigned, but continued a member of the executive council until 1879, when he resigned and accepted the speakership, a position he filled with ability and satisfaction until 1883, when he retired from pubic life with the office of Judge of Probates of his native county. the deceased was married in 1866, to a daughter of the late Mr. William Bolton, who, with a son and daughter, survives him.
            In everything pertaining to the welfare of his native place, he took an active interest. For a number of years he was president of the Charlotte County Agricultural Society. As a trustee of schools, he was largely instrumental in bringing the schools up to their present high standing. he was prominently identified with the Masonic body, having occupied the responsible position of Grand master. In the Anglican Church, he was one of its foremost men, and was a constant attendant at he deliberations of the Synod and Diocesan Church Society. At the time of his death and for many years before, he was a warden of All Saints Church Sa, and contributed largely of his bounty to the support of the church. He was deeply interested in railways, being one of the largest stockholders in the Saint John and Maine Railway. In the schemes of the advancement of St. Andrews he took a leading part, being at he time of his decease solicitor the St. Andrews Land Company. A man of sterling integrity, of generous, charitable disposition he attracted around him many warm friends who will sincerely deplore his all to early death.
            The interment of the deceased took place on Saturday afternoon, being under the auspices of St. Marks’ Lodge, of St. Andrews. . . . The procession was one of the largest ever seen in St. Andrews. The services in the church were conducted by Rev. R. E. Smith, in consequence of the illness of Re. Dr. Ketchum. The church was almost completely filled.. . . .


April 23/1891
George H. Wiseley, a pupil in the St. Andrews Grammar School, who recently captured the Beacon’s story prize, has also won the Provincial prize in the Montreal Witness competition, and stands an excellent chance of winning Dominion honors. We congratulate Mr. Wiseley upon his deserved success. His story was connected with the history of the Loyalists. Miss Agnes Carson won the Grammar school prize in this competition.


Feb. 4/1892
The Oldest Physician
Dr. S. T. Gove of SA, talks with the Beacon
Dr. Samuel Gove, of SA, is without doubt the oldest practicing physician in NB
            On Friday last the Beacon surprised Dr. Gove in his study and drew from him a few facts relative to his life history.
            Dr. Gove is a native of Gagetown, Queen’s Co., having seen the light of day there in 1813. His father came to this Province from New Hampshire after the Revolution and settled at Gagetown, where he married a daughter of Samuel Tilley, who took an active part in the American Revolution as a royalist. He landed at Saint John in 1783, and served on the first petit jury ever established in the province, under the grandfather of Sir John Allen.
            One of Dr. Gove’s ancestors on his father’s side was in the pioneer force attached to the 8000 troops that were ordered to be levied in Massachusetts for the siege of Louisburg in 1748. He assisted in the building of a road across this morass on which to haul the heavy siege guns and when the British fleet broke the chain across the harbor and captured the town, the contingent from Portsmouth, N. H. of which he was a member, dismounted the silver bell of the cathedral, and it was taken t Portsmouth, where it is now hanging in the belfry of St. John’s Episcopal church. This bell had been blessed by the Archbishop of Paris.
            The subject of this sketch removed with his family to Saint John when three or four years old, and took up his residence in the suburbs, which is now almost in the heart of the city. He has a vivid recollection of many events in the history of Saint John. He can remember visiting the smouldering remains of the military barracks on Fort Howe, and can clearly recollect hearing the 9 o’clock gun being fired from the fort while lying in his bed. After the fire, the military were quartered in the “Red Store” at Rankine’s wharf, remaining there until the Lower cove barracks were built for their reception. The doctor remembers the two last gentlemen in Saint John who wore Hessian boots, with tassels on them. These were a man named Bonsall, and the father of Mr. Beverley Robinson, a tall, stately gentleman.
            Dr. Gove was one of the first pupils of the Madras School, which was then situated on King Square. Among his early schoolfellows he distinctly remembers Mr. Thomas E. Millidge, Mr. John R. Marshall, ex-chief of police, and the late Canon Scovil. General Smythe, who had been aide-de-camp to Wellington at the battle of Waterloo frequently, opened the school. He would ride up on horseback, and leaving his horse in charge of an orderly, would enter the room. He would seat himself at the organ, and after playing and singing “Old Hundred,” would open the school. The General, by the way, was regarded as one of the best musicians in the army. Brunswick Smythe, his son, was also the doctor, thinks, a pupil of this school. He remembers having seen one or two persons in the pillory on King Square, and has also witnessed the whipping of criminals on the Square. The whipping post was on the corner of the square, about opposite the present site of the Dufferin hotel. He has seen the school boys turn sick on witnessing one of these public whippings.
            The first Sunday school that he attended was in Trinity church, of which, he thinks Mr. Byles was then rector. Two of the lots of land on which Trinity church now stands were given for that purpose by the grandfather of Mr. William Whitlock, of St. Andrews. Dr. Gove’s grandfather owned two lots on the corner of King St., which were sold for a hogshead of rum. In those days such a sale excited no comment, as money was scarce, and it was quite common to barter in that way.


Feb 11, 1892
Scraps of History
Gleaned from the Old Sessions Records of Charlotte
            September Sessions of Charlotte county, 1815: “order, that application be made to His Honor the President and Commander-in-Chief, recommending Benjamin Caldwell and James Brown, 3rd, residing in the Parish of St. David, in the county of charlotte, to be duly licensed, as a school-master, as by His Majesty’s royal instructions is directed, the said Benjamin Caldwell and James Brown, 3rd, being of good moral character, and in the pinioning, of the said court qualified to keep a school; also, that Ebenezer Bugbee, of the town of St. Andrews, should be recommended as above.”
            A subsequent order makes it appear that two school houses had been provided in St. David, and 60 pounds assessed for their maintenance, and that a school house hade also been built in St. Andrews.


Aug 28/1902
Reminiscences of Bye-Gone Days
For the Beacon
In one of your late issues you requested information from the old inhabitants of St. Andrews, relative to the English soldiers who occupied the old Barracks, lately purchased by Sir Thomas Shaughnessy. As a native of St. Andrews, where I lived till the summer of 1854, I will simply say I have no recollection of the time when there were not solders in St. Andrews. In my schoolboy days I went to school with the sons of soldiers, at the old school house at the entrance to the old Episcopal Church, near the residence of the late Thomas Algar. I was born in 1826. In 1839 I left school and went to learn my trade with James Kennedy, who at that time lived in the old Gilchrist house, next to the house occupied by the late Russell Bradford. On the wharf below was John Treadwell’s block and spar yard. At that time, the officer in command was Lord Hill. He was a very handsome little man, a great horseman and had two English thoroughbred horses—the most beautiful creatures I ever saw. If I mistake not, his father was second in command at Waterloo. He used to gallop up the street to Mr. Kennedy’s, get off his horse and hitch him the latch of the door, sit up on Mr Kennedy’s cutting board, and chat by the hour about their old home in Ireland. They were both from the same town, in the County of Antrim, Ireland. There were never in my recollection more than 25 or 30 solders at the barracks, commanded by a lieutenant, the regiment being at St. John or Fredericton. Lord Hill was removed to St. John. As I remember he volunteered to ride a tailor’s horse in a race and won the race. He was afterward killed while riding a vicious horse in steeple chase in the old country. The horse threw him and broke his neck. He was the second man that horse killed. They shot the horse. I distinctly remember many of the officers,--a Mr. Cole, who kept a horse. When he left, his equipment was sold at auction. Dr. McStay bought his sleigh. It was after the fashion of a Russian sleigh—very low. I remember the Doctor’s daughters when in it seemed a reclining position. A Lieut. Wedderburn, another officer with money, was a great ladies’ man; also Mr. Lacy or DeLacy. He always dressed in is scarlet regimental clothes when going to church on a Sunday,--the only officer I ever saw do so. He was a tall beautiful figure of a man. In fact, all the officers were the same.


Oct 8, 1903
His Journey Ended
Neil Lochary Drags Himself to St. Andrews to Die
Sick and half-famished with cold and hunger, Neil Lochary, the aged school master, dragged himself on board the CPR train at the Shore Line crossing, on Saturday. On arrival at St. Andrews he tried to walk up the street, but his strength failed him. A passing express team picked him up, and at the direction of the secretary of the Alms House board he was taken to the Alms House. A physician was sent for, but his ministrations could not recall the strength to the wasted frame. He lingered until early Monday morning when death put an end to his wanderings. The deceased was 81 years o age, and a native of Donegal, Ireland. Early in life he came to St. Andrews with his father. The latter carried on a large business here for a number of years. Neil was well educated and for years taught school. For the past twenty years he had led wandering existence, tramping from place to place, teaching in some of the back districts for a time and then moving on to some other locality. Though the possessor considerable property he paid little attention to his personal appearance or comfort. Last winter he was found near Piskahegan in a half-frozen state and brought to St. Andrews. A soon as he had partially recovered his strength he bade adieu to St. Andrews and resumed his trampish life. The end has now come. The deceased has a brother and sister in comfortable circumstances in St. Stephen. They would have cared for him but he would not permit them. His funeral took place on Tuesday afternoon.


Dec 31/1903
Santa Claus In Danger
Santa Claus had a hot time in the Baptist church on Saturday evening last. The children of the Sunday school, with their teachers and parents had gathered together for a little Christmas entertainment. A pleasing programme of song and recitations was carried out. Then Santa Claus (Mr. Theodore Holmes) with fur coat and trailing beard made his appearance, and proceeded to distribute gifts from a Christmas tree. He was assisted by some of the older children. Suddenly one of the candles on the Christmas tree brushed up against the tissue paper ornaments. At once there was a blaze. Santa Claus made a dash for the burning paper and his beard caught fire. Others rushed in and the burning ornaments were quickly pulled down. Little damage was done, but for a moment here was some excitement.


Nov 16/1905
Royal Secret Revealed
King George IV was Married Secretly and Had a Son
Was That Son the Late Charles Briscoe of St. Andrews?
London, November 11. By permission of King Edward the Daily Chronicle asserts, a package of papers consigned to the care of Coutts’ Bank, by Mrs. Fitzherbert (Maria Anne Smythe), under the stipulation that it was not to be opened for a long period, has now after seventy years been opened and proved to contain the marriage certificate and other indisputable roofs that George IV was actually married to Mrs. Fitzherbert. Mr. Fitzherbert became the wife of the Prince of Wales, afterward George IV, in December 1785. The marriage of the Prince was invalid under English law, though it was sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church, of which Mrs. Fitzherbert was a member. It was expected that the papers in Coutts’ would settle the question which as agitated the British public for over a century, as to whether there was issue from the marriage, but there is noting in the foregoing despatch to indicate that he question has been solved. It has long been reported that there actually was a male child, and that this child, emigrated to the United States and settled in Washington, where he died some years ago, after living quietly, but in good circumstances.
The above paragraph may furnish a clue to the mystery surrounding the life and death of Mr. Charles Briscoe, who resided in St. Andrews for many years and was commonly reported to be the illegitimate son of King George the Fourth. Mr. Briscoe was connected with the Imperial customs while here. He left several daughters as issue, one of whom was married to the late David Shanks Kerr, of St. John. It was though that before he died he would clear up the mystery connected wit his birth, but he carried the secret to the grave with him, leaving directions that after the lapse of many years his grave should be opened, when the secret would be found revealed. His wishes were carried out a few years back, but the papers that were supposed to contain the hidden secret had crumbled into dust.
In the issue of the Beacon of July 24, 1902, the following article bearing upon the opening of the Briscoe grave was published. The names of those who were present at the exhuming of the body were the deceased grandson, Mr. John Kerr. Of St. John, and the late Rev. Canon Ketchum, and the late Dr. S. T. Gove:


Here awaiting the final resurrection
Rest the mortal remains
Charles Joseph Briscoe
Elizabeth Ann
His wife
To whose memory this
Tablet has been erected
By their children.
This corruption must put on incorruption and this mortal put on immortality.


In a sheltered corner of the ancient burial ground of St. Andrews, protected by narrow wooden palings, stands a plain white marble table, which tells the above simple tale. Weather-beaten and moss-grown the stone is, but it still stands erect—in marked contrast to many others about it. The inscription is plainly discernible
To the wayfarer who knows nothing and cares less of the early history of St. Andrews and of the occupants of this humble tomb, the story told by the marbled page has little of interest, yet beneath the grave there lies hidden from mortal eyes a romance of real life such as the novelist’s pen has seldom written:--a romance in which no less a personage than a king of England is alleged to have played s leading part.
            The story has been closely guarded for many years, but with the death of the immediate members of the family the necessity for further concealment has been to a great extent removed.


Charles Joseph Briscoe was an Englishman by birth and was the reputed son of King George IV, his mother being said to be one of the ladies of the court with whom he had fallen in love. In order probably that he should be out of the reach of gossips of the court—for there were gossips in those days as there are now—he was appointed to a position in the Imperial Customs at St. Andrews. Capt. Grant being at the same time the chief officer here.
            There are a few people now living who can remember Mr Briscoe and who can recall him riding around the streets of St. Andrews in his scarlet hunting coat. He was tall man, of an autocratic disposition; would brook no interference and dept himself aloof from the common people. His wife was a lady of much culture and refinement and had been at court in England before coming to this country. Upon her husband’s demise she was under the necessity of supporting herself by teaching school. Some of the old people of the town were among her pupils. They can easily recall the stately, dignified figure of the old lady as she appeared in her school-room, with a white ruffed Elizabeth collar about her neck and gold-headed cane in her hand.
            It was generally expected that upon Mr. Briscoe’s death the mystery surrounding his life would be revealed, but the secret was hidden in the grave, where so many secrets are hidden. In his will, he left instructions that upon the death of the last of his children his grave should be opened, when papers would be found upon his body, which would reveal the history of his life and make clear all that was doubtful concerning his birth.
            It was nearly sixty years afterward that the last of the name passed form earth. Then, in the presence of two St. Andrews gentlemen, who have died within a few years, and a grandson of the deceased—who holds a responsible position in St. John—the grave was opened. But the precaution of enclosing the papers within a metallic or other suitable casket had not been taken, so that when the light touched hem they crumbled into dust, and the secret that had been so jealously guarded still remained the property of the tomb.
A medallion portrait of the deceased’s wife was found in the coffin and is now among the priceless treasures which the deceased’s grandson has in his possession. It is somewhat dimmed by its long imprisonment in the grave, but the features are still recognized by those who knew the old lady.


Jan 17/1907
Osburn House to be used by C. P. R. as summer School of Science. Hayter Reed in town; began arrangements for school. “The building will be treated as an annex to the Algonquin and will be under the management of Mr. Allerton.”


Oct 17/1907
Donald MacMaster Presents British Flag to St. Andrews Schools. Miss Van Horne also present.


March 21/1912
“St. Andrews Night”
A “St. Andrews Night” at “Elm Corner” is always san evening of rare delight, but that of Monday last, under the auspices of the Canadian Literature Club, was even more delightful than usual. Well-written and well-told stories of the St. Andrews of long ago by such inimitable story-tellers as R. M. Jack, Charles Campbell, the late I. Allen Jack, Rev. A. W. Mahon, John Campbell, and Judge Cockburn made the hours slip by most pleasantly
            There were stories of old school-day battles, of the troublous day of 1818, of the Fenian raid, and of the many quaint characters that St. Andrews in its early day possessed.
            One amusing narrative was that of Frank Lynn, a mischievous lunatic, who, on his way to the asylum at St. John, possessed himself of the warrant of commitment, and, when he reached the asylum, persuaded the physician that the constable was the real lunatic. The constable was detained for several days while the roistering lunatic drove gaily back to St. Andrews.
            Then there was the story of the late Dr. Caleff, who, on a very foggy day in 1818, thought he heard a noise like a Yankee gunboat out in the bay. The Home Fencibles were brought out and remained on duty for two days. Then it was discovered that the mysterious noises had been caused by a stately old turkey gobbler.
            The story of a dainty little silver trowel, which had been handed down from the misty past, was among the stories told by Rev. A. W. Mahon.
            A most amusing story was that of a youthful British officer, who was hoodwinked into rowing down to Deer Island to fight a duel with the brother of an Eastport young woman he had flirted with. As the “brother” was a myth, there was no duel. The joke was not discovered by the officer until years after, when he was at Constantinople on his way to the Crimea.
            Among the Loyalist stories that were told was one relating to the history of the British coat of arms in All Saints’ Church, which had been brought from Wallingford, Conn., by the first rectors, Rev. Mr. Andrews.
            Many laughable incidents connected with the Fenian raid were narrated.
            Mr. John Campbell, during the narration of his reminiscences, declared that St. Andrews had not been so prosperous for 75 years as it is today.
            A feature of the evening was the display of “relics” of St. Andrews, among which were a venerable sampler; a wedding message of 1786, written upon birth bark; the family bible of the late Dr. Cassels, the first teacher of the grammar school, and the first Presbyterian clergyman of St. Andrews; the first bible used in Greenock church; a communion token of 1825; a gold signet ring bearing he Bredalbane crest; a medallion brooch; the banner of Hibernia Masonic Lodge, the first Masonic lodge to be established here; a ponderous old watch; an old picture of St. Andrews in its very early days, and a number of other most interesting and historic antiques.
            One of the most interesting “exhibits” made at the meeting was an autograph letter recently received by Rev. A. W. Mahon from the Archbishop of Canterbury.
            Miss Mowatt read the birch-bark wedding messages, which was a most unique production. During the evening Miss Gwen. Jack sang solos. Dainty refreshments were served by the hostesses, Miss Mowatt and Miss Campbell, and a most delightful evening was concluded by the singing of Auld Lang Syne and the National anthem.


May 2/1912
New Grammar School being built. Old building used to house workers.


June 20/1912
Cornerstone of new school to be laid Friday.


June 27/1912
Long piece on opening of new school.


Aug 8/1912
Rumours of war between England and Germany. New school to be called “Prince Arthur” school after new Governor General Duke of Connaught who will dedicate it upon his visit Aug 22.


Aug 29/1912
Vice Regal Visit
Duke of Connaught Loyally Welcomed at St. Andrews [Willa’s book, p. 29 photo]
Receives Address, Dedicates School and has a Good Time on the Golf Links
All anticipations with respect to the visit of St. Andrews of the Duke and Duchess of Connaught and Princess Patricia, last week were more than realized. The weather was not quite up to the mark in all respects, but it remained sufficiently stationary on Thursday to permit the public functions to be held most successfully.
The town was never more gaily decorated, nor was there ever more people on the streets. Autos and carriages by the score were present. SS, Milltown, Calais, SG, the islands and the mainland villages in the County each contributed its quota to the general throng. The Warden of the county, Mr. E. A. McNeill attended, and was present on the dock to greet His Highness and welcome him to Charlotte County. So also were Mayor Murchie, of Milltown, and Mayor Grearson, of St. George.
            Nor was the scene afloat any less dazzling than on shore. The big American yacht Kehtoh was a mass of bunting, so was Mr. Hopkins’s beautiful yacht Seiglinde, also the clipper sardine boat Cansarco, Mr. Wheelock’s yacht, the yachts belonging to the Rigby fleet and many others beside. A more spontaneous greeting to a representative of royalty could not have been devised.
            Promptly at 3 o’clock the vice-regal party landed at the public wharf. The Duke, attired in plain afternoon dress, was accompanied by the Duchess of Princess Patricia, with the official and personal attendants.
            Upon reaching the wharf they were welcomed by a reception committee composed of the Mayor, members of the council and school board and a number of representative residents, included among the latter being Sir William Van Horne an Hon. Senator Mackay.
            The party walked to the head of the wharf where they embarked in carriage and preceded by the St. Andrews band moved in the direction of the new school building, on King Street. They were accompanied by an immense concourse of people, on foot, in autos and carriage. The school children and their teachers were lined up on either side of the street, and greeted the vice-regal party by waving flags and scattering flowers in tier paths.
            Arrived at the school, the visitors were taken to a platform, which had been erected in front of the school, the children being massed around the platform. A portion of the platform had been railed off for the distinguished guests, and was especially furnished and decorated for them.
            Just as the ladies of the party had taken their seats, little Misses Odell and Dorothy Hanson stepped forward and presented the Duchess and Princess with a pretty bouquet each. They shook the hands of the little ladies and thanked them most graciously
            [dedication of school here described]
            [Wednesday, Thursday and Friday golfing was done.]
            The Decorations—
            Never was St. Andrews so thoroughly and so beautifully decorated as it was on the occasion of the vice-regal visit. Not only were the business houses and streets gay with bunting, but most of the dwellings were prettily decorated. The Mason hall was a mass of beautiful decoration, the banners of the lodge being included in them. The members of the Pythian and Orange bodes had their place of meeting gaily decorated with bunting. Customs collector Snodgrass had a most tasteful arrangement of flags and bunting in front of the customs building. Kennedy’s Hotel was very prettily adorned. Wren’s Drug store was handsomely adorned. The block house was likewise decorated. Almost every dwelling in town had its decoration, so that it would be unfair to particularize. A good deal of credit and many thanks are due to contractor McVey, who put himself to a lot of trouble to assist the school committee in carrying out the programme at the school. He worked night and day to get he name plat completed, and also permitted the committee the free use of the lumber for platform purposes.
            Incidents of the visit—
            Almost a serious accident occurred during the procession on Thursday afternoon. Mr. Whidden Graham, of Milltown, got out of his auto to crank it up, not knowing that the power was on. As he finished cranking it the machine started up and came in contact with a carriage containing Mrs. Augustus Rigby and Miss Eva Stoop.  The carriage was overturned and the ladies thrown out, narrowly escaping being run down by he auto.
            As the Duke was driving down King Street, an enthusiastic young woman waved an Irish flag. His Highness recognized the flag and smilingly saluted it.
            Capt. James Leonard was one of the loyal residents of Deer Island to come up to see the Duke. It so happened that the Duke and the Captain were landing about the same time in the forenoon, and the Duke exchanged greetings with Captain James. They got quite chummy at the wharf. Some hours afterward when Captain Leonard was formally introduced to the Duke by the Mayor, his Highness laughingly replied that he had had the pleasure of meeting the Captain before.
            The spice of adventure connected with the ducal visit here will serve to fix it all the more strongly upon the distinguished visitors. The Duke’s military secretary got entangled in a fish weir on the night of arrival and had to spend a couple of hours in working his way out. It was one of the biggest “catches” that the weir had made during the season. Then the ducal party had quite an adventure while on their way to Sir William and Lady Van Horne’s Thursday evening. The rudder of their motor boat became disabled, and quite a long time elapsed before the disabled boat could reach Minister’s Island. When the party returned to the Earl Grey it was on board the Sardine Company’s crack sardine steamer “Casarco” in the charge of Capt. George Johnson. Capt. Johnson made the transfer from island to steamer in splendid shape, landing his precious cargo in the best of order. It was an auspicious beginning for the sardine boat. . . . .
            The vice-regal party entrained at the CPR station on Friday night, and at 5:30 on Saturday morning left for Fredericton, where the Duke received a loyal welcome and where he assisted in the rededication of the restored Anglican cathedra. The exercises were of a most dignified character. From Fredericton the party proceeded west.
            The train in which the vice-regal party is travelling is a splendidly appointed one, the fittings being most sumptuous. Conductor Vandine took the train out of St. Andrews. /the engineer was Bert. Boone.


Duke’s reply to mayor at dedication of school: “I was very glad to follow the example of many others in selecting your charming seaside town for a few days rest before commencing a journey to two months to the Pacific coast and back; and having seen St. Andrews I quite understand how it is that so many hard worked people come here for their holidays. For you are able to offer a number of attractions which few places can boast, and the only regret felt by myself, as well as by the Duchess and my daughter, is that our visit is of such short duration.”


Sept 26/1912
Reminiscences of Old St. Andrews
(Written by the late R. Melville Jack and Read Before the Canadian Literature Club, St. Andrews)
These sketches I will have to give you just as scattered reminiscences and you can classify them as you see fit.
            One of my first memories is my father telling me that he had seen a hundred vessels loading pine timber here at one time. That was before the duty was taken off the Baltic lumber in England. [1820] My father came from the West Indies, where he had been manager on a plantation and had the management of the slaves. When he landed in St. Andrews, he had only a half dollar (a silver dollar cut in halves). Mr. Rait was then the principal merchant there, and as his office was at the head of the wharf, he carried his trunk there and asked Mr. Rait if he could heave it until he found a job. The answer was that he could, and an officer of the lowest clerkship which was accepted at once was made him. The result was that eventually he became one of the partners in the business.
            I heard him tell a pretty good story of his early days. He and an old man, Nathan Niblock, slept in the store. Along the upper shelf of the room in which they slept were some 20 or 30 clocks. One evening my father wound all these clocks up and set the alarms so that commencing at midnight the first one would go off and be followed by the others in rotation. You can imagine the infernal din. Poor old Niblock was almost frightened out of his wits.
            There were some rather funny occurrences at the old Grammar School. Of course we of the Grammar school considered ourselves as the autocrats and many fights we had with other schools to uphold our supremacy, and I presume, owing to the “esprit de corps” we used to come out on top. There was a large school opposite ours with which we were continually at war and many pretty bloody battles were fought but the Grammar school kept its supremacy.
            One of the characters of the town was a young man usually called “crazy Kelly” who went dancing about the streets and though generally harmless, would when angered by very vicious. Another was Frank Lynn. William Henan, constable, was appointed to take him to the lunatic asylum at St. John. Henan got a horse and wagon and called for Frank and they started on their way. Frank seemed delighted at the idea of the trip and a stop at a grand hotel. On the way Henan showed Frank the warrant telling him that was the order from government for their trip, and as it was not immediately returned Henan forgot it or delayed to regain possession of it. On their arrival at he asylum, while Henan was putting up the horse, Frank proceeded to the building, saw the doctor, showing him the warrant and told him that he man who was looking after the horse was the patient and that he was laboring under the delusion that he was an officer bringing him to the asylum, with the result the Henan in spite of all his protests was detained and Frank returned to St. Andrews. Of course Henan was released afterward and Frank took his place.
            Kempt Boyd, a son of the old member, James Boyd, was generally up to some mischief. My brother Edward and Levi Handy having shot a large loon, Kempt suggested that they should make it a present to eh new lighthouse keeper (now the loon is about the toughest bird that swims or flies). So they took the bird to the lighthouse and made he keeper who was not acquainted with aquatic birds, a present of it, telling him that it was a splendid kind of duck and very rare. The man was delighted and invited them to supper when the delicacy would be served. The supper took place, but I doubt if a fork could be inserted into the bird, but they finished the side dishes and the drinkables.
            Another character was Mcbeath, an old Highlander who used to turn out in full highland costume and parade the streets on the Queen’s birth day playing the bagpipes and followed by the usual crowd of street urchins.
            One of the oldest persons I can recollect was Mr. Ker, originally of the firm of Ker, Douglass and Campbell, who did a large business in St. Andrews in the old days. I remember him at 90 years of age with long, thick, black hair and not a gray hair, in his head. Squire Wilson, who lived at Chamcook, is another of the old stock that I can remember well. He had a beautiful brick cottage about where Mr. Grimmer’s house now stands and a fine park in which were several deer. He built many ships, both at Chamcook and St. Andrews. There were two brothers, Edward and Joseph Wilson, who lived in the brick cottage now occupied by Mr. Everett. Among others I recall were Dimock and Wilson, who did quite a large business; Mr. Turner, the founder of the Odell business; Mr. Trenholm, who had quite a large orchard where we used to steal apples; old Joe, a negro who lived in an old ship’s cabin at the head of the town, and made splendid spruce beer; the Pottery on the brook that crosses the Joe’s point road just above the town. Flower pots were their principal product but they made clay marbles and we cold get a lot for a copper (no cents in those days). Then there was a broom factory, where Joe Handy’s place is, opposite Kennedy’s hotel and aback of that a racquet court. In those days the market wharf had shops and stores its entire length, but a great fire carried them off.


Nov 28/1912
The year 1912 will be a year to be remembered in the history of St. Andrews. this year we have had a visit from the Viceroy of Canada, a member of the royal family of England; the Price Arthur School building has been erected; a permanent sewerage system has been installed; a large addition has been made to the Algonquin hotel, and last but not least, the year 1912 has witnessed the first steps towards the development of a new manufacturing town within the borders of the parish of St. Andrews. These facts are certainly worth remembering.


Jan 9/1913
New school opens. 2 stories, with concrete sub-basement


April 24/1913
Intermediate school moved to Parr Street is now being fixed up for use as a tenement house


Aug 17, 1918
Centenary of Charlotte County Grammar School 1818-1918
The celebration of the Centennial of the Charlotte County Grammar School was held in the Assembly room of the Prince Arthur School on Friday evening, and a full report will appear in our next issue. We have been supplied with an advance copy of the “Historical Sketch” by M. N. Cockburn, Esq., K.C., which is as follows:
The Friends present tonight must suffer a disappointment, if they are expecting from me anything that could be at all regarded as a proper history of the Charlotte County Grammar School. It was only ten days ago that I was asked to take part in this very important and most interesting event. It can therefore be readily understood, that a great injustice would be done to this institution, whose traditions bear such unmistakable marks of age, distinction, and importance, to speak of the few disconnected facts and incidents  to which I shall be able to refer tonight, as “A History of the Charlotte County Grammar School.”
To prepare anything that would approach a real history of an institution such as the Charlotte County Grammar School, covering a period of one hundred years, in ten days’ time, would be a task far beyond me and would palpably fail to do justice to the school; to its antecedents, to its splendid accomplishments and to the noble army of great men and splendid women, who have for a whole century aught and studied in that school. It is regrettable in the extreme, that a proper history of this School has never been written, and even more regrettable, that all the records and data from which such a work might have been compiled, have not been preserved.
The Acts of the Legislature of the Province of New Brunswick dealing with this School, and some records still to be found in the Office of the Board of Education at Fredericton, give some small degree of information respecting the establishment and working of the Charlotte County Grammar School, but the events and facts that would have been most interesting to records in a properly prepared history of the school, have been allowed to perish and be forever lost, in the passing of the older generations of St. Andrews’ people, without in any form leaving behind them a record of the knowledge they had on that subject; which is quite as painfully true of many important events connected with the Torn of St. Andrews, it first settlement, its commercial growth and development, its ups and down as an industrial centre, and its transformation into Canada’s greatest summer playground.
At attempt at this date to gather material for a proper historical sketch of the charlotte County grammar School, convinces one very forcibly of the fatality of delay, and it is surprising how very little information is now at hand from which to complete a connected tale of this ancient establishment. Records that give any information along the required lines are indeed very scarce, and the older people from whom so much valuable information could have been obtained and preserved have passed along to that Country, from whose bourne no traveler ever returns.
            From the best information I can obtain every pupil who attended the School, under the teaching of the first school Master, and, with very few exceptions, all who attended under the Master who was Brunswick show that this School was established by an Act of the Legislature, passed March 11th, 1816, entitled, “an act to Establish a Grammar School in the Town of Saint Andrews.”
The preamble of the Act reads oddly enough, to those who live in these advanced days of educational advancement and necessity, in these days when education constitutes one of the indispensable necessities in the life of every man and woman. The preamble sets forth—“Whereas education of the youth is of the utmost importance in society, and public attention to that subject has by experience been found to be attended with the most beneficial effects.”
            The Rector of St. Andrews Church (as it was called in the Act referred to), in the Parish of St. Andrews, for the time being, together with Robert Pagan, John Campbell, John Dunn, Colin Campbell, David W. Jack, Harris Hatch, Thomas Wyer Jr., and John Strang, were named as the first Board of Trustees and Directors of the School, by the name of “the president and directors of the public grammar school in the town of Saint Andrews.” It was also provided that the Rector was always to be the President of the Board. And those were substantially the conditions, under which the School was conducted until the coming into force of the Free School Act in 1872, when by the new Legislation, the St. Andrews Grammar School, in common with the Grammar School then existing in all the other Counties in this province, was merged in and became a part of the Free School system of the Province, since which time it has been known and legally designated as the Charlotte county Grammar School.
Until the adoption of the Free School Law, which was passed by the Legislature on May 11th, 1871, and by the terms of the Acts, came into operation on the 1st day of January, 1872, the Grammar School, in St. Andrews seems to have been entirely distinct from the other School system then in vogue so much so indeed that Patrick Clinch, who was the first school Inspector for Charlotte county appointed by the Government, and whose home was in St. George, when making his annual report to the Government in 1854, expressed his appreciation of the great courtesy that had been shown to him by “the president and governors of the Academy at St. Andrews,” in permitting him to pay a visit to the aforesaid Academy.
            The Act of incorporation provided that the Government grant of 100 pounds should be made annually, in aid of the Grammar School, towards the support of a Master, and 200 pounds to aid in the erection of a school building. But it was provided that as soon as the annual income of the said Grammar school should in whatever manner the same might arise, amount to 600 pounds, then the annual Grant of 100 should cease.
There is now no available source from which to learn the exact date when the erection of the Grammar School building was commenced but inasmuch as the Act authorizing the erection of such building was passed in 1816 and the School was opened in the year 1818, it would seem to be a fair inference, that the Old Grammar School building was erected about 1817.
            The building as originally erected, or the first Grammar School, was a square building in form, with a hip roof; from the centre of the roof arose a bell tower of the same form as the main building, and that was surmounted with a peaked roof, from the apex of which a flag staff with a ball on its top pointed skyward. The door opened into a hall, on either side of which was s class room, and at the end of another door opened into the school room. Just opposite the last mentioned door in the main room, and against the wall, was a sort of pulpit, with a reading board on the front, into which the Master used to ascend when hearing his classes, and especially for the hearing of classes in translation of Greek and Latin.
            At some subsequent time, the date of which I have not been able to ascertain from any source, an addition was made to the original building, on the end facing on King Street. All present will know, that the old Grammar School building stood on the same site now occupied by this Prince Arthur School building. The addition referred to comprised the space afterwards occupied and known to the present generations, as the cloak rooms and class room, as the same were at the time the old building was abandoned. In making the addition referred to, the interior of the building was changed in form, and a “V” roof put thereon, with the gable end facing on King Street. A small bell tower was placed on the eastern end of the building, from which for many generations the old Grammar School bell, which is in evidence here tonight, rang out its call to summon the Grammar School pupils to their daily tasks. The old building when enlarged and remodeled increased the size of the main school room, by the removal of what were originally the hall and class rooms referred to in this description. In that enlarged and remodeled condition, the old Grammar School building served as a school building, under whose room many bright minds were trained and developed, and many who afterwards became prominent and distinguished men and women, passed their graduation.           
In 1912 the old building was removed from its original site, after ninety-four years of service, to a place on the lot below that on which it sat so many years, and is now crumbling into decay, a standing witness of the work of the iconoclast, and if its inner walls could be made to speak, much that would interest and amuse  could be learned, which now, alas, can never be known.      
In 1811, the Rev. John Cassills, a Presbyterian Divine, was sent out from Scotland to teach the Academy at King’s College, Nova Scotia. That was then a denominational school, under the management of the Anglican Church, and the governing body did not feel altogether comfortable about a Presbyterian clergymen moulding the minds and lives of the youths of their faith, and a knowledge of the existence of that feeling caused the teacher to chafe slightly under the cords that bound him to a school, and to a people who loved and honored the man, but had doubts a to the soundness of his theology. The opening of the Grammar School at St. Andrews, and the need of a teacher to take charge thereof, afforded Mr. Cassills, an opportunity of relieving his mind on a difficult problem, against which he had fought for seven years; and at the sacrifice of income which in after years he must have sorely needed to rear and educate a family of twelve children, with which God blessed him in his married life, he accepted the appointment to the principalship of what was then the St. Andrews Grammar School.”
            In 1818 Mr. Cassills moved from Windsor, Nova Scotia, to St. Andrews, and took up his residence in what was afterwards known as the “Donaldson House,” which occupied a site on the upper part of the block immediately above the Grammar School building, which Block is now the property of Lady Tilley.
The reminder of Mr. Cassills’ life was spent in Charlotte County, and during that time he build and occupied a dwelling on Minister’s Island, on  site that is still spoken of, by some of the older people, as the “Cassills’ field.” He also built and occupied the dwelling house on the St. John Road which was lately owned and occupied the late Mr. Robert McLaren and his family. He also owned, occupied, and died in the dwelling house at Vardon’s Point, Bocabec, which has lately been remodeled and is now owned by Mr. Angus Holt.
            At the opening of the school in 1818, it was exclusively for male pupils in the advanced grades, and Mr. Cassills’ pupils, for the first years of his term, were every largely made up of sons of the United Empire Loyalists and their descendants. That splendid class of men who, three quarters of a century ago, were the very life-blood of all St. Andrews’ industries, whose enterprise and industry placed St. Andrews, in their day, at the head of the commercial Towns of New Brunswick; lined the water front with wharves and warehouse, and taxed the same to full capacity with shipments to and from; filled the harbor with ships which carried on a very large trade between here and the Old Country and between here and the East Indies; who promoted and built the first lien of railway in new Brunswick; whose ability, integrity and enterprise place them foremost among the men of New Brunswick, and who set a place for the commercial life of St. Andrews, which their descendants failed to maintain, were graduates from Mr. Cassills’ school.
            How interesting it would be if we tonight could read a list of the names who responded to Mr. Cassills’ first roll call, on the opening of the Old Grammar school in 1818. Unfortunately there is no such record extant, and I have been able to ascertain their names of only a few who were his pupils during the twenty years that he was Head Master in that school, from 1818 to 1838. During that period, however, the late Honourable Harris Hatch raised and educated a large family. There were five boys whose names I remember, from information given to me years ago by some of the older people. They were Harris, Wellington, Christopher, Edward, and Charles. Mr. Cassills took delight in telling of an incident that occurred in connection with the Hatch family, while the boys were in his school. Perhaps there is only one person living today who remembers hearing Mr. Cassills relate this tale, and that is Miss Jane Kaven, who now lives in Bocabec, who has seen ninety summers, and whose recollections of Mr. Cassills are still very distinct. The honorable Mr. Hatch, was, of course, solicitous of the welfare and future of his boys, and in discussing their possibilities with Mr. Cassills, said he felt that Harris, Wellington, Christopher, and Edward were boys of strong intellect and would easily make their way in life; Charles, however he thought to be of weaker mental caliber, and he asked Mr. Cassills if he did not think he had better educate Charles for the Ministry. Whether it was because of the views expressed by Mr. Cassills in reply to Mr. Hatch’s inquiry or some entirely different cause, Mr. Charles Hatch never attained the scared calling which was then his father’s ambition. Another pupil who attended the school under Mr. Cassills, was the late Mr. Thomas Thompkins Wyer, who was a familiar figure on the streets of St. Andrews half a century ago. Mr. Wyer was a godly man, and did much good in the community, in his own way, but like Mr. Charles Hatch the could not be classed as a man of strong mental powers. For the purpose of this narrative, I am assuming that colonel Wyer, the father of  Thomas Thompkins Wyer, like his son, Charles, thought it would be his paternal duty to place his son in some occupation where brain power would not play much part. He, therefore, educated his son, Thomas as a lawyer, and Mr. Wyer became a member of the New Brunswick Bar, but his mind and thoughts ran in too saintly a groove to continue long in that profession.       
            The last two survivors among the men who attended Mr. Cassills school, were the Late Honorable Senator Arthur Hill Gillmor and the late Mr. Charles O’Neill.
In 1836 the Rev. Mr. Cassills resigned his charge of the Grammar School, to resume his work in the ministry, and assumed charge of a Presbyterian circuit in this County, with churches at Bocabec, Whittier’s Ridge, and Mascarene, wherein he labored faithfully and well until his death on July 18th, 1850. His remains rest beside those of his wife, under the shadow of the spire of Greenock Presbyterian Church h in St. Andres.
            Mr. Cassills bore the reputation of being a man of strong scholarly attainments. His sermons and writings, many of which are still in existence, show the had a profound knowledge of , and took a deep interest in astronomy. While in the Grammar School he successfully taught navigation, and many a sea captain who afterwards sailed on the five oceans, obtained the whole of their theoretical education while in his school. He spoke fluently and wrote freely in seven languages. He certainly was himself a scholar of a very high order, but the opinion did prevail among some of his pupils that he did not possess the ability to impart knowledge to eh same degree as possessed by some of his successors in the school.
            In 1838 Mr. Daniel Smith Morrison succeeded Mr. Cassills as Head Master of the Grammar School. As far back as that time we have evidence of the fact that nick-names were common and in sue, as they are at the present day, for history records that this new Head Master was given the name of “Long Morrison,” of “Sugar Tongs,” from the fact that he was very thin, had long legs and a very short body.
            Mr. Morrison continued in charge of the School from 1839 to 1849, when he went to the United States, became a citizen of that Republic, entered the legal profession, and was appointed a Supreme Court Judge in the State of California, which position he held at the time of his death. Some years before his death, and after his elevation to the Supreme Court bench, he was visited in California by our worthy and much esteemed fellow townsmen Mr. Henry O’Neill. Mr. Morrison really taught the Grammar School only ten years, as he spent one year from 1q845 to 1846 in England, on leave of absence, and during that period the school was in charge of Mr. Charles Bliss, who afterwards became  an Anglican clergymen. During the time that Mr. Bliss was in charge of the school the number of pupils in attendance sensibly decreased, as it is said he lacked the magnetism and personality of Mr. Morrison. Upon Mr. Morrison’s return, however, the vacant seats were speedily filled and the attendance became so large that an usher had to be engaged. Many changes were made in the management of eth school and in the system of instruction. Trial by jury was instituted, so that no boy accused of misconduct should be unfairly punished.
            I have obtained the names of some of the men who were students under Mr. Morrison, and no doubt many of them will be familiar to some of those present tonight. The list includes: Stannus Jones, Mortin Jones, Vernon Jones, the Hon. B. R. Stevenson, Dr. J. F. Stevenson, Rev. Fletcher Pickles, George Miller, John Miller, Robert Miller, J. Sydney McMaster, J. Ambrose Street, Arthur Streets, George W. Street, W. H. Street, W. D. Aymar, Mathew J Elliot, Andrew Elliot, William Austin, George Buckstaff, John smith, Henry O’Neill, Rev. Francis O’Neill, James O'Neill, Hugh Stoop, James Stoop, Darius Ingraham, Patrick Quinn, Thomas McVay, Daniel McStay, John Dunn, B. O. Hathaway, John B. Balsom, John Boyd, James Maloney, E. S. Polleys, R. Melville Jack, John Lochary, Charles Eaton, Fred Eaton, Donald Berry, Fred A. Morrison, John Campbell, George Mowat, Thomas Berry, Alexander Berry, Robert Stevenson, Capt. Nelson Clarke, Capt. John Wren, Alexander McGill.
            Very few indeed on the above list are still living, but we are glad to number among our citizen in St. Andrews three whose names  have been given to me in the above list, and who are with us tonight, Mr. Henry O’Neill, Mr. James Stoop, and Mr. E. S. Polleys.
            I could give some slight account of those whose names are above given, in their after life, but that would be personal history, not history of the Grammar school, to which I feel I must limit myself in this narrative.
            One incident, however, which is directly connected with the school and has been given to me from a reliable source, may be worthy of touching upon as I pass along. It is connected with the late Fred A. Morrison,, who as a pupil at the time. He afterwards went into the legal profession, in which he distinguished himself during the short time he lived, and was a law partner with the late Judge King of the Supreme Court of Canada. At the time referred to the late Dr. Jerome Alley was the Rector, and as a trustee of the school, was paying an official visit. Dr. Alley was a short and very fat man, and while examining the school at the closes of the term he asked Fred Morrison to spell the word “Fatally,” and Mr. Morrison proceeded to divide the word in syllables and spelled it thus: “Fat, fat; Ally, Ally.” Dr. Alley was wise enough to take no notice of the play that had been made on the letters of his name, but the story is worthy of repeating, as evidence of the remarkably swift wit on the part of young Morrison, who as that time was scarcely fourteen years of age. This incident may have occurred n the School of Mr. Smith, rather than the school of Mr. Morrison.
            Mr. Morrison was succeeded as Head Master in the School by Mr. Randal E. Smith in 1849. Mr. Smith at that time was a young man, fresh from King’s College, his home being on Prince Edward Island. One of his pupils has spoken of him in this manner: He was then abut thirty-five years age, and was what would be truly called a fine looking man. His hair was brown, face full with side whiskers, average height, and a form inclined to fullness. His step was light and sprightly, and tradition told how he had put to flight two big loots who, for a fancied grievance,, had treacherously taken him unawares. His learning was of the first order; he was an excellent English scholar, a good French scholar, and was proficient in Latin, Greek and Hebrew; he was a capital arithmetician and mathematician, and taught navigation to many a youth who afterwards was destined to command the ships that sailed the briny deep. While playful and jolly at recess or before session he was a strict disciplinarian, once the bell had announced the hour for work. He was noted or impartiality, and the son of the aristocrat would “catch it” just  as quickly as the poor scholar who was getting his classics for making the fires or brooming the floor, if the rules had been infringed and a castigation was required. It was the custom in Mr. Smith’s school to begin the morning session by  reading a  Chapter fro the New Testament, each pupil continuing the text as his name was called, and the Catholic boy was obliged to bring his Douay for that purpose, though it would have been handier and cost a small sum of conscience to use his neighbors King James Version. He disliked anything that smacked of bigotry, and no fault would meet with more severe retribution than the one of sneering at another’s religion.
            In 1855 Mr. Smith was ordained a Deacon in the Anglican Church, and acted fro some years as assistant to the Rev. Dr. Ketchum, but continued teaching the Grammar School until 1868, when he left St. Andrews and became the Rector of St. Marks Church in the Parish of St. George, in succession to the Rev. Mr. McEwen. He died in July 1899, much regretted not only by his own flock, but by all dominations. A young man just from college he at first had pretty hard work controlling a rather rough and pugnacious lot of pupils, who had been brought up to believe that truth and pluck would always win out, and his hasty punishments without proper investigation, soon precipitated a revolt, which happily resulted in a very much better understanding between scholars and teacher. Mr. Smith had severely punished one of the older boys for a slight offence, the others thought the punishment entirely out of proportion to the offence, and thus the trouble came about. During recess Mr. Smith often went o this lodging, only  a block from this school, laving the doors open. On this occasion one of the boys, named Grant, had left his cap in the building, and finding the door fastened on the inside, started to climb in the window; there he was repulsed by a boy named Smith, a brother of the Master, who spat upon his head. However, he managed to get in and looking about for a way to punish his aggressor, bethought him of the cellar under the building. This cellar was entered by  heavy trap door in the floor, and being only used a receptacle for fuel during the winter, was consequently filled with cobwebs and black dust; and as there were no windows it was perfectly dark when the trap was closed. Opening this trap door, he caught Smith and thrust him down, then closing the door, left him a prisoner. When the Master returned and had taken his place at his desk, loud cries  of “let me up!” were heard coming from the cellar. “Who is down there?” the teacher said. “Me,” was the response; “And who is me?” “Smith”; “Who put you down there?” “Grant.” “Go and let him up Grant.” Grant went to the trap, threw it open, and seizing Smith, whose head reached nearly to the floor, by his long hair dragged him out. His appearance, covered with dust and cobwebs, was too ludicrous, and a roar of laughter greeted his arrival. Smith told his tale, and Grant was ordered to take off his jacket, when he received such a horse-whipping, as would be looked upon with horror at the present day, and which left long white wales across his shoulders and around the arm stretched out to protect his face and body. After school was dismissed Grant proceeded to take it out of Smith for tattling, and for which all the other boys each gave him a box on the ear.. They had made up their minds that if the Master undertook to thrash the lot they would take the horsewhip away from him, and upon his attempting to do so the following day they did take away his whip. Of course there was a struggle, and the small boys ran out crying “They are killing the Master!” and the excitement was rather intense. Not a blow was struck, but the whip was simply taken away, as the Sheriff  and constables were on their way to the scene of riot. The boys retied to the shades of “McFarlane’s Woods” till after dark, when they returned each to their own home. There was s trial for assault afterwards but nothing came of it, and eventually all the boys engaged in the affair returned to school. Here credit must be given to Mr. Smith for acting like the Christian gentleman that he was; there was no difference made in the treatment of the rebels, and everything went on as usual—minus the horsewhip. To the pupil who thus related this incident Mr. Smith shortly afterwards said “I think I made a mistake with you boys, and that I was too severe. I am going to try a new tack and trust to your honor to be a little trouble to me as possible, but rather an assistance.” He stuck to his part of the contract, and the boys stuck to their as far as it was possible for boys to do so. The gentlemen from who the above account was obtained, was the late Mr. R. Melville Jack. The late Mr. Charles Campbell once related the same incident, but told it in a more sanguinary way. In Mr. Campbell’s account he stated the boys wrenched the wooden frames from the slates and struck the Master with the sharp corners and edges, and much blood was spilt in one way an another. He further related that both sides were so infuriated that some tragedy might have happened, but fortunately one of the younger boys thought of the bell, and rushing to the rope rang out a peal, which echoed over the Town. Immediately the inhabitants rushed up to find out what was the mater, and row was stopped. The larger boys who even then supposed that they had killed the Master, fled to woods, and it was some days before they were all safely returned to their homes.
            This, Mr. Campbell stated, was a lesson to both parties, and from that time the school was most successful and efficient—indeed so thoroughly was he grounded in classics and other branches, in that school under Mr. Smith that on his arrival in England, he took an exceptionally high position at College for a boy of his age, to the astonishment of the Masters and ushers who examined him, and who were all under the impression that the had come fro an uncivilized country.
            There were many able men graduated from Mr. Smith’s school, and afterwards became prominent in the world and industry. I regret I have not a full or more perfect list of those men, but it has not been possible for me to get a list that would be at all complete. I have however, been furnished with the following list of names of men, who at some time were pupils in Mr. Smith’s school: Elbridge Hannah, William E. Polleys, Thomas Munroe Hannah, Eber S. Polleys, William Sydney Smith, John Algar, Owen Jones, Martin law, Harry Gove, Isaac Kennedy, Edward Foster Law,  Charles Campbell, Howard Campbell, John Treadwell, Jarvis Stephen Law, James Coldwell, Henry Quinn, Edward Jones, Thomas Miller, James Chandler, Vernon Nicholson, Joseph A. Wade. Arthur Whitlock, Claude M. Lamb, Robert Chandler, William Smith, George Treadwell, Edward  S. Waycott, James Brennnan, J. T. Whitlock, William Whitlock, Edward B. Chandler, Guthrie Treadwell, Charles Ketchum, Warwick A. Lamb.
The names that I have thus obtained, are from the best available sources possible but neither myself nor my informant desire to be responsible for the complete accuracy of the list. I think the late Hon. Dr. George J. Clarke also was a student in Mr. Smith’s school, for a short time, but the short period at my disposal has made it impossible for me to verity that as a fact.
            In 1868 Mr. Francis Partridge succeeded Mr. Smith, and I think it was during his term that the school was opened, for the first time, to female pupils. Mr. Partridge was held in high esteem, not only by his pupils, but by the entire community among whom he moved, and after his term as teacher in the Grammar School he was ordained n the Anglican Church, wherein he labored with great success and ability.
            Mr. Partridge was succeeded as Head Master in the Grammar School by Mr. Charles M. Sills, now the Rev. Dr. Sills, who began his work in the Grammar School in 1872, and from then until the present time ahs maintained a strong and friendly interest in St. Andrews, in its people, and in all its institutions. For many years he has been a regular visitor to St. Andrews during the summer season, and none who come among us are more beloved or more welcome than the distinguished gentleman who has spoken to us tonight, as the oldest surviving teacher to the Charlotte County grammar School. It is fitting, too, that Dr. Sills should retain a kindly feeling and recollection for this old town of Saint Andrews, as it was by his association with e Charlotte county Grammar School that he became bound by sacred ties in the family of the late Reverend Dr. Ketchum, who for so many years filled the sacred post of Rector of All Saints Church, and who during all those years, endeared himself to the hearts of the people, in a way and to a degree that few men in any walk of life have ever succeeded in doing. To very many of us his memory is a bright spot in our lives; the good that he did in his sacred calling and the deep interest that he ever took in the public schools, and especially in the Charlotte county Grammar School, will cause his memory to linger lovingly in our thoughts, so long as there remain any of the people who  were privileged to know him.
            Dr. Sills’ term and work in the Charlotte County Grammar School can be discussed with so much more correctness and so much more interest by him, than it could by any other person, and as we enjoy the great privilege of having him here tonight, I simply pass on, without further referring to his tenure of office in this venerable institution.
            I am not able to give the dates, lack of time has made that impossible but the names of the teachers who followed Dr. Sills in succession are: Dr. J. A. Wade, Dr. James F. Covey, Mr. Arthur W. Wilkinson, Mr. Horsman, Mr. William Brodie, Mr. Colpitts, Mr. Fred L. Day, Mr. J. A. Allen, Mr. George J. Trueman, Mr. George, E. F. Sherwood, Mr. S. A Worrell, Mr. William Woods, Mr. William H. Morrow, Mr. George B. Carpenter, Miss Edna L. Giberson, and Miss Salome Townsend.
            Dr. Wills was the first teacher to take charge of the Charlotte County Grammar School after the New Brunswick Free School Law came into force, and many changes were put into effect in the administration of than school.
            I might be permitted in closing to say, that in my investigation I am lead to believe that, previous to 1833, Parish Schools existed only by the grace and at the option of the inhabitants, and the same were under no restrictions by, and received no sanction from the legislature or from any governing body. A teacher’s qualification for the position consisted solely in his willingness to assume the duties of the position, and as a result Mr. Lorimer, who succeeded Patrick Clinch as the second School Inspector, for the County, should have found it necessary to say in his report to the government as late as 1862, that he found the Parish Schools in a most deplorable condition; that the teachers were for the most part, a lot of illiterate and ignorant females, having no qualification for the work outside of being of fairly good character.
            Many years have passed since the New Brunswick Free School Act came into operation. The Charlotte county Grammar School has remained perpetually under the best obtainable teachers, but looking back over the past decade or two decades, one must sometimes wonder if the system is at fault, or if the material is deteriorating, or it, as a matter of fact,, the graduates from that institution during the past twenty years have measured up in point of ability with the graduates who passed through the school, during the first three quarters of a century of its existence.


St. Croix Courier
June 5/1930
Severe conflagration on June 4 in St. Andrews. “Coming at the beginning of what promised to be the most successful tourist season in the history of this beautiful seaside resort, the effects are doubtless serious and will be a severe blow to many business men and residents of the town.” Details June 12/1930. Charlotte County Grammar School destroyed.


St. Croix Courier
Nov 19/1936
Shire town Items—Show Appreciation. Sun Life Assurance Co. present ‘laboratory truck’ to high school in appreciation of caddy service. “The truck is for the purpose of arranging experiments in the laboratory and then displaying them in the classroom. The truck is adjustable in height and has brakes on the wheels so that it will remain stationary if desired. The top may also be tilted at an angle to display the contents better to the class.”