Old St. Andrews



Old St. Andrews



Old St. Andrews


June 19/1890
Delving in the Past
How We Did our Business a Century Ago
Interesting Extracts from the First Court of Sessions in Charlotte
Among the books and documents in the custody of the County Secretary, there is none that possesses greater interest to the resident or native of Charlotte, than the record of the first court of sessions held in this county. Through the kindness of Mr. Grimmer we are enabled this week to publish a number of extracts from this interesting historic volume, and it is possible that at a future date we may be able to take the matter up again.
            The first court of sessions was established in Charlotte county, in June, 1785, but the first record which appears is that of September sessions of that year, the opening entry being as follows:--
            At the Inferior Court of common pleas and general Sessions of the Peace of our Lord the King held at the Court House in the Town of St. Andrews in and for that County Charlotte on the first Tuesday in September being the sixth day of September in the twenty-fifth year of His Majesty’s reign, Anno Domini, 1785.
            The justices who participated in this first meeting over one hundred years ago were Robert Pagan, William Anstruther, Colin Campbell and Nehemiah marks. Thomas Wyer was Sheriff, and as subsequent extracts will show his office was no sinecure.
            Methods of punishment prevailed then which for many years past have been obsolete, as witness the following, which was copied from the sessions record of September 9, 1785.
            Dominus rex vs. Duncan McEachern—Bench warrant on complaint of the Grand Jury, for insulting and abusive language to them, on duty: the said Duncan McEachern being brought before the court and the charges alleged against him being proven to their satisfaction, Ordered, that he be set in the public stocks half an hour for the said offence. The Sheriff returns that he has executed the said sentence as by warrant commanded. Dominus rex. Vs. James Piercy—Bench warrant for disrespectful behaviour, profane swearing, etc., in open court. Ordered that the said James Piercy be confined in the public stocks for one hour for the said offence. The Sheriff returns that he has executed the said sentence as commanded.
            At the sessions of July, 1786, the justices present being John Curry, Robert Pagan, William Anstruther, James Campbell, Jeremiah Pote, Nehemiah Mar4ks, Hugh Mackay and Henry Goldsmith, the following license fees were agreed upon:--
            Licences to tavern keepers and retailers of spirituous liquors above one hundred gallons from the 18th July 1786 to the third April next, twenty shillings license and bond one and a half dollars, upon certificate by two neighboring justices.
            In the treatment of criminals, no morbid sentiment prevailed in those days. A prisoner was given a fair trial, and discharged if found innocent, but if he was adjudged guilty, summary and severe punishment was usually meted out to him. Here is an entry copied from the record of August, 1786:
            Timothy Houston was brought before the court in consequence of a warrant issued against him by Jeremiah Pote, on suspicion of petty larceny, and upon examination there appeared to be no foundation for the charge against him, ordered that he be discharged.
            Also, Joshua Lock, on suspicion of the same, to wit, for stealing a pair of silver buckles from Phebe Webb, confesses the charge, ordered that he receive twenty lashes on the bare back at the public whipping post forthwith, and be banished the county for twelve months, and that a warrant be made out directed to the Sheriff for that purpose, and that the buckles be returned to the above-named Phebe Webb, the rightful owner.
            A CHIMNEY ROBBER
            Houses were constructed on a different principle then from what they are now, and it was not an unusual occurrence for a robber to enter a house through the chimney and make his exit in the same way. At the sessions of 23rd March, 1787, a prisoner was indicted on a charge of having entered a house by the chimney route:--
            Cornelius Ryan, who being apprehended on a warrant issued by James Campbell, on suspicion of going down the chimney of the dwelling house of Neil McNichol and stealing from thence sundry articles at different times, the property of the said Neil McNichol and John McPherson, upon the oath of Neil McNichol, ordered to be committed to the Common Jail till discharged by due course of law.
            At the April session of the General Sessions, 1788, the grand Jury made a number of presentments, among them being the following:--
            The widow Helms of the parish of West Isles, for keeping a disorderly house. The widow Polly, of the said Parish, for the same. Also, Peter McDougall, of the town of St. Andrews, Tailor, for harbouring and concealing William Bowers, an apprentice servant of Andrew Martin’s of the same town.
            The same jury rapped the magistrates over the knuckles for not paying “that attention to the laws in general of this Province, that they are required to, especially an Act passed in the year of our Lord 1786, entitled an Act to Prevent Nuisances, Hedges, Weirs, Seines, and other Encumbrances obstructing the Passages of Fish in the Rivers, Coves and Creeks of this Province.”
            Regulations overseers of the fishery Saint Stephens, 2nd April, 1788:--
            The subscribers being appointed overseers of the fishery on Scoodiac river beg leave to propose to the honorable court the following regulations to be observed in the sessions:


  1. that all vessels and craft shall lay as near to high water mark as possible, and that they shall cure their fish on shore.
  2. that no boars, canoes, or craft of any kind shall be allowed to go above the middle landing after the 10th day of May.
  3. That no seine shall be drawn at the point at the foot of the Salt Water Falls, nor to extend more than one-quarter of the breadth of any part of the river.
  4. that all the offal shall be buried at last forty feet from the banks of the river.
  5. that no fish shall be taken on Sunday, but e allowed a free course up the river. Samuel Mulberry, Michael Simpson, Benjamin Getchell.

            The Gaoler to be allowed at the rate of twenty pounds per year, to be paid as contingent funds of county will admit, in proportion with other allowances to be paid from them, and liberty for retailing spirituous liquors free, at the same time the thanks of the court to be delivered to him by the clerk of the court for his past services. Adam Smith was the name of the Gaoler.   
            The following appears in the record of sessions, 28th April, 1788:--
            Upon information of Robert Pagan, that on Saturday evening last a poor woman named Boyle, with two young children, were left in his absence within his dwelling house, attended with other circumstances of rudeness by a man who said he was a servant of Mr. Owen, of Campobello, alleging that he the said servant had brought the said woman and children from Campobello, and that he acted by his master’s orders,”
            --the matter was referred to the overseers of the poor, who reported that the paupers had no claim to a settlement in the parish of St. Andrews.
            The court having taken into consideration the matter of right as the manner of sending and leaving the poor persons in question, within the parish of St. Andrews, and conceiving the power abrogated by the said servant and his conduct in consequence thereof in the premises, as n indignity offered to the authority of the County of Charlotte at large, and an injury to the parish of St. Andrews in particular, do order that the paupers aforesaid be sent back to the place from whence they came and that a copy of the proceedings in this business be transmitted to Mr. Owen to the intent that he may be informed of the conduct of his servant therein, which the Court cannot suppose Mr. Owen to have been heretofore acquainted with.
            At the court of sessions, first Tuesday in April, 1789:--
            Ordered that each inhabitant of Saint Andrews owning a horse, cow or ox, be requested by the commissioners appointed for that purpose, to give a day’s work of one for each, and every two under two years old, to be considered as one, and on refusal that their cow, horse, or ox be excluded the privilege of the said Common. And say inhabitant importing cattle for sale, who shall put any such cattle on the said Common shall pay to the Commissioners to be laid out for extending the Common six pence per month, after the first month, and that Colin Campbell, John Dunn, Capt. Pote, and Robert Pagan, be and they are hereby appointed commissioners for the purpose of carrying the above regulation into execution.
            On the 3rd September, 1789, Robert Watson asked permission “to put out a small wharf and erect a store on it for the convenience of fishing on the beach of the river St. Croix, in the line of part of the road running through Morris Town,” which was complied with.
            At the same time John Campbell and Co. were given permission to use a lot of land to build a vessel on.
            At the session of the court held 8th September, 1790, the following resolution was adopted:--
            This court being informed that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts have of late repeatedly discovered a disposition to exercise their jurisdiction over Moose and Dudley Island, to the great inconvenience of the inhabitants of this County in general, and of those island in particular, therefore resolved, that Mr. Curry, Mr. pagan and Mr. Campbell be appointed a committee to enquire into the particulars of the late conduct of the said Commonwealth respecting those island, and after obtaining the necessary information thereupon, in the name of this Court to write an official letter to His Excellency our governor respecting their situation and requesting that he will be pleased to adopt such measure as may be most expedient for securing the inhabitants of those islands and their property from the unjust encroachments of foreign power and for protecting them in their allegiance to His Majesty.
            In April, 1791, Donald McDougall, Gideon Vernon, and James McNabb, in behalf of themselves and other inhabitants of the parish of SG, urged the expediency of having “a good passable road cut through from one extremity of the parish to the other,” in consequence of “the badness and danger of the navigation of the river Magaguadavic in the Spring and Fall.” They also urge the building of bridges across the rivers Bonny, Little Digdeguash and Magaguadavic where the public roads cross the said rivers. It was pointed out that “a good and sufficient bridge can b erected on the main river Magaguadavic with a few days labor of the inhabitants for 25 pounds cash.
            Robert Pagan, Colin Campbell, and Henry Goldsmith were appointed a committee “to write to His Excellency John Wentworth, stating the great injury to this county from the large reserves that have been made on the Schoodick and Digdeguash rivers, by which the settlement in that part of the county is impeded, also to inform him that the growth on those rivers is chiefly hardwood, and to request that he would be pleased to take off such reserves, where there is no growth of pines.”
            Among the entries of the September sessions, 1791, appears the following:--
            The Grand Jury, considering the peculiar situation of this County, being situated on the frontiers of this Province, that the last spring an unusual number of Savages assembled on Pleasant Point on the American shore, and some uneasiness has arise respecting the claims of some islands on the frontier, we beg that a request may be made to the commander-in-chief that a sufficient number of troops may be sent down for our protection as may be thought necessary.
            John Ross, a seaman, was arrested in April, 1792, for neglect of duty on the British ship “Queen.” Evidently Jail life did not agree with John, for he presented the following petition:--
            To the gentlemen of the court: I would wish to inform the court, that I would wish, as I have no friends in this place, and I should like to know, whether I am to lay in her and suffer or not, so no more at present from your humble servant, John Ross.
            The Grand Jury being informed that the small pox is about to be introduced into Saint Andrews by inoculation, are much alarmed at the ill consequences that such a matter may be attended with to the public welfare in general at this time, therefore pray that the Worshipful Court will take such steps as may be necessary that the inoccupation may be stayed until the Fall of year. The court concurred in this recommendation.
            John McKenzie announced his intention of building a vessel of upwards of one hundred tons in SA, and asked for a lease of land at the same time.
            James Cristy, of SS, at the same court, prayed for a lease of land on the top of the hill, near John McCollum’s farm, “for the purpose of erecting a house or houses and lumber yard to carry on a trading in lumber, and provide suitable accommodations for the traders who may occasionally come this way.”
            The “Waweig Ferry” was granted to Edmond Dougherty “on giving security to go from sunrise to sunset, 3d. per man, 1s. a cow, 1s. an ox, and 1s. a man to Oak Point Bay. Not to keep a passenger more than an hour.
            At the September sessions in the same year, it was ordered “that every householder within the town of St. Andrews shall once in three months at least sweep all their chimneys where constant fire is kept or burn the smut during rain or snow, and to enforce the said regulation they hereby order that every person whose chimney will take fire and has not bee swept, or otherwise cleared within the time above mentioned, shall be subject to a fine of ten shillings for very such offence, to be appropriated to the county Funds.
            Rev. Samuel Andrews made a strong appeal to the sessions at that time “to devise a more certain and equal support for their poor.” He also presented a petition for a road to Chamcook Island, stating that he had been proprietor of the island for seven years [since 1785 then, which would mean Osburn sold to him the same year he acquired the island, and the 1791 deed is post-dated, as it seemed to be] and had not been able to get a road from the town to it. “Much the greater part of the time he has been obliged to go to and from the island upon the sea shore, and to cross the water of the Cove, which has been the occasion of much trouble and great delay to him and has sometimes been attended with personal danger to himself and others.” He goes onto say that he had cut three road through the woods but had been obliged to give up two of them as soon as made. “Finding finally that he must give up the island altogether, or aught of any land he could get for a road to it he has complied with the offer of the proprietors of the land about Chamcook bar, and by their friendly assistance has but a road through the woods, to a line between them from the Bar till it strikes the great road, which leads from town to the country. This has been an expensive undertaking, and tho’ assisted by the others immediately concerned in the road with him, it has cost your memorialist at least six pounds currency, over and above his quota of work upon the public road.” He asked for certain concessions, which were allowed.
            In April, 1795, Nathan Frink asked for leave to erect a wind-mill at Indian Point. The petition was complied with, twenty shillings per year being required as rent, “the building to be completed within a twelve-month hereafter, the toll to be what is commonly taken in this country, viz. 1/16th for grinding only and if boulted 1/16th, the preference of ground between him and John Campbell to be drawn up for by lots.
            The following regulations were ordained in 1793 with regard to tavern keepers and retailers of liquors:--


  1. Tavern keepers shall lodge and entertain as their guests, all travellers, not being of bad report, who may request and tender, if thereunto required, a reasonable satisfaction for the same, and shall be answerable for the goods of their guests.
  2. Tavern-keepers or retailers shall not harbor, under any pretence idle and disorderly persons of bad report, nor any person, not being a traveller, who is retained in any service, nor credit such retained person in any sum exceeding five shillings.
  3. all tavern keepers and retailers shall observe and cause sobriety and good order at be at all times observed and kept in their respective house, and shall not permit any persons not being their guests, or with whom their guests have just cause of intercourse to be or continue herein at such hours as are unreasonable on the Lord’s Day.
  4. All tavern-keepers and retailers shall sell by measures duly stated, and shall render their customers particulars of what they may have received, and shall not detail their goods for the reckoning.
  5. No person license to retail spirituous liquors shall take any pawn or pledge, as security, nor shall they detain or receive wearing apparel, or tools of any kind or description for payment.
  6. No person whatever shall be permitted to sit drinking in the house on the Lord’s day, commonly called Sunday.
  7. No liquor shall on any pretence whatever be sold or given in the house to any one who is in the smallest degree intoxicated.
  8. Tavern keepers shall keep a copy of the foregoing regulations hung or posted upon some place in the house.
  9. Breaches of all or any of the foregoing regulations hall incur the forfeiture of their licence, over and above the penalties and forfeiture to which they are liable in and by the Act for regulating inn holders, tavern-keepers and retailers of spirituous liquors.
  10. No tavern-keeper shall harbor or conceal any idle or disorderly person of bad report.      

June 26/1890
Ninety Years Ago
Extracts From the Record of the Sessions
The extracts which we published last week from the record of the first court of sessions held in St. Andrews having awakened a degree of interest, we return again to the subject.
At a court of the General Sessions of the Peace held in St. Andrews, on the third Tuesday of September, 1795, a letter was read from the Brigade Major at Fredericton informing the board “that the privateer brig Union is ordered by government to proceed immediately to St. Andrews, Passamaquoddy, with directions to remain for the protection of that town, the Bay and settlement till further orders.” The Board returned thanks “to his Excellency the governor for the intended protection, with an earnest request for the continuance of the same, as in appearance so publicly necessary for the security of the inhabitants.”
In consequence of representations made by the Grand Jury at the April session, 1796, regarding the inconvenience and dissatisfaction prevailing in consequence of Indian and other meals being sold by measure, it was resolved to sell it by weight “at the rate of fifty-two pounds per bushel of yellow meal and forty-eight pounds per bushel for white meal.”
In February, 1796, the board was called upon to deal with a complaint from the overseers of the poor, which set forth at a poor man named Wm. Matthews had been landed at St. Andrews from a brig belonging to Mr. Prince, of St. John. An order, was passed to send the man back, and a copy of the proceedings was transmitted to Mr. Prince.
Among the matters disposed of at the April sessions of 1797, was a case of homicide se defendendo. The parties implicated were John Robinson, Hugh Lamey, William Stewart and Sergeant Stewart. According to the evidence submitted it appears that on Sunday, the 2nd day of October, 1796, these persons were on board a schooner at Grand Manan, guarding contraband goods that had been seized by Colin Campbell, searcher to His Majesty’s Customs. At the hour of eleven o’clock at night a party, supposed to consist of from eight to eleven persons, “with force and arms,” boarded the schooner and threatened to sacrifice the guardians of the smuggled goods, if they made opposition, “who, being hard pushed and fired at with three musquets, were unavoidably obliged to defend themselves by firing several guns in return, through which mans William Newcomb, of Moose Island, fell dead on the forecastle; the others retreated in confusion, leaving the body of Newcomb on deck.”
The “rapid increase of thistles in the county” formed a theme for the Grand Jury about the same time. The presentment was filed, with a letter from A. Botsford, of Sackville, in which the regulations of that county respecting thistles were enclosed. The contents of that letter are not entered in the records.
Rev. Samuel Andrews requested the aid of the court in 1789 in suppressing vice and immorality. The Grand Jury replied:--
That they feel deeply impressed with the truths stated by the Reverend Mr. Andrews, particularly the profanation of the Lord’s Day. They lament that the regulations heretofore made to prevent drunkenness on the Sabbath have not had the desired effect; they also beg leave to state that it would be proper for the Sessions to take some measure to prevent fowling and fishing on the Sabbath, which they are sorry to learn is practiced by some persons in town, likewise to prevent boys and servants playing in the streets in different parts of this Town, which has been long complained of as a nuisance. It is customary in many places for the church Wardens to visit public houses and different parts of their parishes during divine service and at other times on the Lord’s Day; they believe such a regulation would be attended with good effect in this parish.
At the April sessions, 1800, a long letter of resignation was read from Joseph Garnett, clerk of the peace and treasurer. He speaks of having been visited “with a malady dreadful in its nature and most grievous in its extent, with afflictions impossible to describe,” which have compelled him to withdraw himself from the County and from his home, “in the view of obtaining relief from those excruciating agonies I am laboring under without intermission, and in the hope that with the blessing of God of my preservation eventually from an otherwise impending, a rapid, an alarming and a most loathsome dissolution.” He asks that his faults may be looked upon with indulgence, “that my omissions may be attributed to the imperfections of human nature in general, and my variegated sicknesses, sufferings and new –country difficulties,” and “that it may always be remembered I left a beloved wife behind me, who merited every kind and tender return of conjugal love an affection from me, and three little innocents, the pledges of our mutual love, more near and dear to me than life itself.” The closing sentences of his letter are worthy of reproduction:--
May the social unanimity of the County of Charlotte, in its state of infancy, be restored, and but one general competition of strife in who shall do most for its welfare and prosperity among you exist. May the Maker, Ruler and Judge of the Universe (to use the emphatical and memorable words of the Sessions records) continue the exercises of true religion and genuine morality in the land, and keep modern philosophy and atheistical principles at a distance, far removed from the enviable unenlightened, and may the friends of order and regular governments in all parts of the globe, have cause to rejoice for ever victorious over their disorganized enemies and inveterate opposers, and finally (in the language I lived to hear adopted in the States) may all mankind discard the pernicious doctrines of modern liberty and Equality and place a just value upon civil subordination which protects property, and upon regular governments which secure the natural rights of Man.”


Feb 11, 1892
Scraps of History
Gleaned from the Old Sessions Records of Charlotte
            September Sessions of Charlotte county, 1815: “order, that application be made to His Honor the President and Commander-in-Chief, recommending Benjamin Caldwell and James Brown, 3rd, residing in the Parish of St. David, in the county of charlotte, to be duly licensed, as a school-master, as by His Majesty’s royal instructions is directed, the said Benjamin Caldwell and James Brown, 3rd, being of good moral character, and in the pinioning, of the said court qualified to keep a school; also, that Ebenezer Bugbee, of the town of St. Andrews, should be recommended as above.”
            A subsequent order makes it appear that two school houses had been provided in St. David, and 60 pounds assessed for their maintenance, and that a school house hade also been built in St. Andrews.
            On the same day on which the above orders were passed, George Roberts, adjudged guilty of larceny, was sentenced “to receive at half-past two o’clock of this day thirty-nine lashes upon his bare back, then to be discharged and depart the county.”
            The stern old magistrates of those days were evidently firm believers in the maxim, “Never put off till the morrow that which should be done today.”
            At the April sessions, 1819, the following rules and regulations were ordained for the government and management of the market established in St Andrews:--


  1. The regular market hours shall be from sun rising to sun setting of each day of the week (Sunday’s excepted)
  2. That no fish, fresh meat, poultry or butter of any sort shall be sold in any part of the said town of St. Andrews until the same shall be regularly exposed for sale in the market house for the space of two hours, under the penalty of 20 shillings for each and every offence.
  3. That no person shall purchase any fish, fresh meat, or poultry of any kind, or butter in the said market for the purpose of selling the same again, until after the same shall have been exposed for sale in the market house at least two hours, under the penalty of 20s. for each and every office.

Joseph Walton was given a lease of the Market House on paying 100 pounds.
The bell-ringer was ordered to be paid 7s. 6d. for the last sessions.
            At a subsequent special meeting the same year Jacob Gold, was appointed inspector and culler of fish for the parish of West Isles, in the room of Jonathan Merrill removed from the said parish.
            On the sixth day of January 1820, Thomas Wyer auctioned off a number of lots adjoining he market wharf, to the following persons, at the yearly rent stated:--
            Lot 1. Jonathan Currier, 31 pounds
            Lot 2.John Staples, 17
            Lot 3. Harris Hatch, 19
            Lot 5. Joseph Walton, 21
            Lot 6. Colin Campbell, 16
            Lot 7. Benjamin Stymest, 16
            Lot ?    Samuel Frye, 13.
Adjoining lots were leased to peter Stubs and David W. Jack.
The April sessions, 1821, ordered “that no person who do now or may hereafter keep a retail store of good in the parish of St. Stephen, shall be allowed to obtain directly or indirectly a tavern license for the purpose of selling spirituous liquors in the said parish, and it is further ordered that all person selling under a tavern license shall have a sign put up in some conspicuous place in front of the house so licensed.”
            Andrew Merrill was arraigned at the same session, on an indictment for sedition. The fury, through their foreman, Charles R. Hathaway, found him guilty, and he was sentenced “to pay a fine of ten pounds to the king, to suffer three months imprisonment and to sit in the stock on the three first Mondays two hours at each time, between the hours of twelve and four o’clock in each day and to pay the cost of court.”
At the April sessions in 1823 it was ordered “that it is expedient to build a new gaol, and that committee, consisting of Colin Campbell, Thomas Wyer, Jr., and Peter Stubs, to appointed to find an airy and eligible situation for the site of the said gaol. And to suggest the ways and means to carry the same into execution.”
Swine were evidently something of a nuisance at that time. No swine were “allowed to run at large in St. Stephen between the still water and Mr. Porter’s bridge without being ringed in the snout in addition to being yoked as directed.”
At the September sessions, 1823, the following order passed:--“that the Jail limits be bounded as follows, to sit, north-westerly by the north-western line of Elizabeth street from high water mark in a north-easterly direction to Parr Street, thence south-westerly along the north-eastern lien of Parr Street to Sophia Street, thence south-westerly along the south-eastern line of Sophia street to high water mark at the bank of the harbor, to include all the wharves now built or that hereafter may be erected, between a prolongation of Sophia street and Elizabeth Street, and a distance of fifty feet round the said wharves, and also to include the space between the said wharves, and to extend to low water mark, between a prolongation in a south-western direction of Fredrick street and Edward Street.” These limits were subsequently extended.
            If blasphemy was treated now as it was in 1823 more than one set of stock would be needed. Jonathan Currier, indicted for blasphemy at the September term of 1823, was sentenced to “one month imprisonment, to pay 5s. fine to the king, and to be set one hour in the stocks and to pay all costs.”
Record of sessions, 1824:--“Ordered, that any person riding on horseback or driving any carriage on the footpath in the town plat of St. Andrews shall forfeit and pay the sum of five shillings for the second offence.”
Ordered by the session of 1824 “that William Andrews shall have exclusive privilege of keeping a ferry, for three years in St. Stephen, fro the public landing across the river St. Croix, and the fare to be as follows:--for conveying across horse, one shilling; for each person, four pence.”
A special meeting was held 21st August, 1826,, when it was ordered “that a sum of ten pounds be placed in the hands of the sheriff of the county of Charlotte to repay the expense of erecting a gallows for the execution of Maria Stewart and Richard Stewart and other incidental charges.”
In 1828 the sessions resolved that there were too many tavern licenses in St. Andrews, and a committee composed of John Campbell, Peter Stubs and John Wilson, was appointed to recommend who should retain licenses and the rate they should pay. It was subsequently ordered that no tavern license be granted without a recommendation from the magistrates residing in the parish in which the tavern is situated.
At the same sitting the Clerk of the Peach was instructed to draw up a petition to the Lieutenant governor and Council, and House of Assembly praying that they will grant aid towards the erection of a courthouse and gaol in St. Andrews.
            A bill was also presented authorizing an assessment for the erection of a courthouse and gaol. [assessments here]
            Elisha S. Andrews, Beverly Robinson, Harris Hatch, Samuel Frye and Peter Stubs were appointed a committee to build the gaol pursuant to plans exhibited by D.D. Morrison. A contract with Morrison was entered into on the 29th of June, 1831.
Ferriage fees from the slip, or Joe’s Point to Robbinston, were fixed in 1830 as follows:
            A man, 1s. 3d.
            Man and Horse, 5s.
            All persons in addition, 1s. 3d.
            Man or two men, with chaise or other carriage drawn by one horse, 6s. 3d.
            Carriage and two persons drawn by two horses, 7s. 6d.
            Yoke of oxen, 5s.
            All in addition, 2s. 3d.
            A cow, 2s. 3d.
            Sheep, 3d.
            Calfs, 3d.
Nathan Fifield and N. W. Tattale were given the exclusive privilege of this ferry for five years.
The following were the names of the registered cartmen in St. Andrews, in 1830. Robert Dougherty, John Dougherty, Patrick McCan, James Kehoe, Cornelius Conley, William O’Brien, Jonathan Currier, Thomas Alexander, Thomas Haddock, Henry O’Neal, John Locke, William Babcock, Charles Gillesland, Thomas Boyle, William Rogers, John Maxwell, George Hume, James Maxwell, James Howland, Hugh Thomson, Edward Melver, Adam Melver, Michael Farrel.


Feb 18/1892
Scraps of History
Gleaned from the Old Sessions Records of Charlotte
            Who has not heard the old resident dating his affairs “from the time of the cholera?” The first mention of “cholera” appears in the records of the Sessions of charlotte, of April 11, 1832. The following resolutions were then adopted by that body:--
            “Whereas it is enacted by the laws of the Province that all vessels having on board the small pox, yellow fever, putrid bilious fever, or other pestilential or contagious distempers at the time of her departure were known or supposed to prevail or on board of which vessel any person during the voyage had died or been sick of any such distemper or having passengers on board should be subject to such rules and regulations made at any General Session of the Peace.”
            “And whereas a contagious distemper called the cholera morbus, among others, is now raging in the continent of Europe and in Great Britain, and it is highly necessary and expedient that necessary measures should be used to prevent the introduction of all contagious distempers into this Provinces, especially the cholera morbus,”
            “therefore ordered, that all vessels from Europe bound to this County or from any other port having passengers on board shall anchor between the eastern end of St. Andrews island and the Sand reef; that pilots shall furnish masters of vessels with a copy of the printed regulations, or read and explain the same to them. Vessels on arriving within sight of the harbor of St. Andrews to make the signal pointed out by law in the day time and at night to have light in its stead. Captains and supercargoes of any vessel ordered to perform quarantine may hand over to the physician any letters or any papers in such manner as he may direct, which after being sufficiently fumigated to be forwarded to their destination.”
            The day following, the Sessions passed another resolution, ordering “that the pest house on Little Hardwood Island e finished with all convenient dispatch, and that Mr. Hatheway, Mr. Wyer and Mr. Hatch be a committee for that purpose.”
            When the court resumed its business the next day, the Clerk was “directed to borrow two hundred pounds on the credit of the County for the purpose of defraying the expenses incurred in erecting buildings, furnishing provisions, medical attendance, etc., for the emigrants reported diseased, or on board the brig Susan and for preventing the spreading of the cholera morbus and other infectious distempers in this county.
At a special meeting of Sessions held in May 1833, an order passed “that all persons adjudged to hard labor shall work from 7 o’clock am until 6 o’clock pm that they shall be employed in breaking up stone for the market wharf and levelling and clearing away around the County Gaol and at such other public work as the committee hereafter to be nominated may direct and appoint.” This committee was composed of Thomas Wyer, William Ker and James Douglass, and they were authorized to employ a suitable person to superintend the work of the criminals. In a recent conversation with councillor R. Cogan, of St. Stephen, he stated that his father was engaged as superintendent of the criminal laborers. Some of the best roadwork done in St. Andrews was done by a gang of criminals under Mr. Cogan’s superintendence.
In April, 1839, the Board of Sessions passed a resolution appointing D. W. Jack, Hon. H. Hatch and Alfred Street a committee to erect a court house, giving them authority to expend a sum not exceeding 1200 pounds in its erection. Cornelius Connolly’s tender was 150 in excess of this sum, but the tender was accepted, and the work proceeded with. Shortly afterward Alfred Street removed from the County and Hon. James Allenshaw was appointed on the committee in his stead. In 1840, the courthouse was completed and handed over, the Sessions holding their first court in it on the 3rd day of October in that year. The land on which the old court house stood was sold at auction in October, 1839, and was bought for town purposes by Hon. H> Hatch who paid 200 for it. This the lot on which the present town hall now stands.
The boys of 1840 were evidently a lively lot of “bloods,” judging from the following resolution which was passed in that year:--“whereas, the good order and peace of the town is much interrupted by unruly boys going about by both day and night insulting females and committing depredations, to the great annoyance of the inhabitants and to the danger of property in the place, Ordered, that John Pike, constable, be employed to look after the disorderly and arrest any improper proceedings in any person and report his doings to the magistrate of the town, as often as the case may demand.” For this duty Constable Pike was paid 2s. 6d. per day.


Charlotte County Ports
The committee appointed by the Municipal Council to memorialize the Dominion Government with reference to the advantages of Charlotte County ports, met in St. Andrews last week, and drew up the following memorial, which has been forwarded under the seal of the Municipality:--
            To the Right Honorable Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley, Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada:
            The Memorial of the County Council of the Municipality of Charlotte, NB, humbly sheweth:
            That your memorialists learn with pleasure that steps are being taken by your Government to secure an improved Atlantic Mail Service. And whereas, a memorial from the Saint John Board of Trade on this subject has been laid before this Council in annual session assembled, asking the cooperation of this body in their endeavor to secure justice for NB in the matter, And while this Council approves of such memorial so far as it goes, your memorialists beg to submit to your Excellency that thus far the advantages of the ports of Charlotte county have been entirely overlooked, and your memorialists beg to call the attention of your Government to the fact that in this County are the deep water ports of St. Andrews den Le Tang, than which there exist no better ports on the Atlantic seaboard of Canada.
            The port of St. Andrews above referred to is s deep water terminus of the CPR, easy of access at all times, entirely free from ice, with ample accommodation for a large fleet of the largest steamers, well protected from dangerous storms, and about forty miles near Montreal, by rail, than the port of Saint John , and sixty miles nearer the Atlantic Ocean, giving Ocean Steamers from here some sixty miles shorter run to Great Britain, the port being also over sixty miles nearer England than is Portland, Maine, while facilities for handling freight could readily be established. 
            The port of Le Tang above referred to is in every way a commodious and excellent harbour; but at the present time, without railway connection, although the length of rail necessary to give it this advantage is but short
            Your Memorialists, therefore, pray that in the arranging of any Atlantic Mail contract your Government will take into consideration the advantages of these ports as herein set forth; and if it be deemed expedient, that your Government will order a survey of the same, and as in duty bound your memorialists will ever pray.


An Old Parchment
When St. Andrews was in the County of Sunbury, Province of Nova Scotia
The following is a copy of the oldest public document in the possession of the County Clerk of Charlotte:
            By His Excellency John Parr, Captain General and Governor in chief in and over His Majesty’s Province of Nova Scotia and its dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, etc, etc.,
            To John Curry, Philip Bailey, Robert Pagan and William Gallop, Esquires,
            By virtue of the power and authority to me entrusted b y His Majesty’s Commission and Royal Instructions, reposing special trust and confidence in your Loyalty, Fidelity and good conduct, I do by these presents during pleasure nominated, constitute and appoint you, and every of you the said John Curry, Philip Bailey, Robert Pagan, and William Gallop, Esquires, to be Justices of the Peace for the District of Passamaquoddy in the County of Sunbury in the province aforesaid. Whereof you the said . . . are herby empowered to hold sessions as the law directs, and you are invested with all the powers and authorities specified and contained in a Commission of the Peace for the said county bearing date the seventh day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three. [1783]
            In witness whereof I have signed these Presents and caused the seal of the provinces to be hereto affixed at Halifax, this eighteenth day of February in the twenty-fourth year of the reign of our sovereign Lord George the third by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King Defender of the Faith, and so forth, and in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four.
            By His Excellency’s Commands,
            J. F. Bulkeley
            Deputy Secretary
It is just about 118 years ago today since Captain General Parr dipped his quill into his ink bottle, and appended his name to this parchment.


June 15/1893
Over One Hundred Years Old
In looking over some musty old papers, the other day, Mr. W. H. Whitlock, of the Customs department, came across a letter which was written over one hundred years ago. The letter, which was addressed to “Mr. John Dunn, Merchant in New York or Nova Scotia” is as follows:--
Kingston, Jamaica, 11th June 1784
Mr. John Dunn,
Having forwarded duplicate and triplicate of my respects to you of the 3rd inst., which related entirely to insurance on the Lord Howe; I do not now trouble you with another copy of it; as this goes by Capt. McLean in that vessel, which I hope will arrive safe with you to a good market.
            Enclosed you will please receive invoice and bill of lading for 4 hhds fine sugar, 16 puncheons and 1 hhd. Of rum shipped on board her on your account and risk. Amounting to 425 pounds Jamaica currency at your debit in account current, which is also enclosed; and credit with 389 pounds, 13 shillings, 10 ½ pence net proceed of her cargo here from Penobscot and 806 pounds, 13 shillings Jamaica currency for her chartered voyage to Georgia and back
             You will find 260 pounds at the debit of this account, for the cost of five new negroes shipped to Georgia for your account, which with my advances for the vessel leaves a balance of 286 pounds, 7 shillings, ½ pence in your favour, which hast mentioned sum I have paid to Capt. McLean, to enable him to settle with the people and for other disbursements.
            As the vessel has really made money b her voyage here, I have no doubt of your hearty approbation;--And as Capt. McLean has spared no pains for your interest, I flatter myself you will also approve of his services.
            In the expectation of hearing from you upon the arrival of the Lord Howe I remain with respect, Sir, Your Most Obedient Servant, John Moore.


Jan 10/1901
Relic of the Past
Occasionally reminders of the distant past are meet with in one daily experiences. Not many days since, an old gentleman, who had almost reached his ninetieth birthday, had occasion to go to the Bank of Nova Scotia to transact some business. A pen was handed him to subscribe his name to a piece of paper, but he shook his head, as much as to say that he had no use for such “new fangled ideas.” Reaching down into his pocket, he pullout a quill pen,--one of the kind that was in general use a hundred years ago—and dipping it into the ink, wrote his name clearly and rapidly. The noise of the quill passing over the paper grated upon the ears of all those who were in the room, but it seemed to be music to the old man. When had finished his writing, eh took the quill lovingly into his mouth, remove the ink and then restored the quaint implement to his pocket.


June 19/1902
Ancient Landmark Removed
The old fort building at Fort Tipperary, which has “braved the battle and the breeze” for eighty and more years, has been obliged to succumb to the advancing hosts of civilization. Finding that it stood in the way of Sir Thomas Shaughnessy’s new cottage, the contractor is having the old building removed. It was a staunchly built structure, its walls being composed of hewn pine legs 11 inches thick, piled one on top of the other.  The wood in these timbers is still as good as when it was first erected. The timbers near the ceiling were provided with port-holes to fire upon the enemy at close range.
            Exactly when the building was erected is not known. It has been generally supposed that it was built during the trouble so 1812 but the fact that the deed of exchange for the property between the Imperial government and the Church of England corporation of SA, was not executed until 1815 disposes of that belief. The building was probably erected in 1815 or very soon afterwards. So far as known it was only occupied as a military station during the Fenian invasion.


Aug 28/1902
Reminiscences of Bye-Gone Days
For the Beacon
In one of your late issues you requested information from the old inhabitants of St. Andrews, relative to the English soldiers who occupied the old Barracks, lately purchased by Sir Thomas Shaughnessy. As a native of St. Andrews, where I lived till the summer of 1854, I will simply say I have no recollection of the time when there were not solders in St. Andrews. In my schoolboy days I went to school with the sons of soldiers, at the old school house at the entrance to the old Episcopal Church, near the residence of the late Thomas Algar. I was born in 1826. In 1839 I left school and went to learn my trade with James Kennedy, who at that time lived in the old Gilchrist house, next to the house occupied by the late Russell Bradford. On the wharf below was John Treadwell’s block and spar yard. At that time, the officer in command was Lord Hill. He was a very handsome little man, a great horseman and had two English thoroughbred horses—the most beautiful creatures I ever saw. If I mistake not, his father was second in command at Waterloo. He used to gallop up the street to Mr. Kennedy’s, get off his horse and hitch him the latch of the door, sit up on Mr Kennedy’s cutting board, and chat by the hour about their old home in Ireland. They were both from the same town, in the County of Antrim, Ireland. There were never in my recollection more than 25 or 30 solders at the barracks, commanded by a lieutenant, the regiment being at St. John or Fredericton. Lord Hill was removed to St. John. As I remember he volunteered to ride a tailor’s horse in a race and won the race. He was afterward killed while riding a vicious horse in steeple chase in the old country. The horse threw him and broke his neck. He was the second man that horse killed. They shot the horse. I distinctly remember many of the officers,--a Mr. Cole, who kept a horse. When he left, his equipment was sold at auction. Dr. McStay bought his sleigh. It was after the fashion of a Russian sleigh—very low. I remember the Doctor’s daughters when in it seemed a reclining position. A Lieut. Wedderburn, another officer with money, was a great ladies’ man; also Mr. Lacy or DeLacy. He always dressed in is scarlet regimental clothes when going to church on a Sunday,--the only officer I ever saw do so. He was a tall beautiful figure of a man. In fact, all the officers were the same.
            The soldiers all had to go to their respective places of worship on a Sunday. The officers seldom went with them. They would all leave the barracks in Company form, come down the hill together as far as the George D. Street House. Those who were Roman Catholics would drop out here and go to their place of worship, the same at the Kirk. The Episcopalians would continue on to the Episcopal church. I don’t remember ever seeing one at the Methodist church. The majority were Roman Catholics.
            I don’t remember the names of the many officers till that of Lieut. Wells, of Her Majesty’s, (it was then) 1st Royals. He came very prominently before the inhabitants of St. Andrews by his assaulting Mr. A. T. Paul (your late Sheriff) in A MacFarlane’s pasture. I did considerable work for him. He was a very nice gentleman, and distinguished himself in the Crimean War. [this is the man who did the undated lithograph of St. Andrews! As Mr. J. M., the contributor, lived in St. Andrews until 1854, the lithograph predates this year]
            The officer who relieved him was Lieut. Herrong, or some such a name. he was a great boating man. I used to loan him my boat, and borrow his. We got along very nicely together. He was also a very nice gentleman. He is the last I remember, as I left in 1854.
            There were always two artillerymen at the Western Block House. It was there the guns and accoutrements used by the Militia on training days were kept, and I presume they were there to care for them. They were mostly Scotchmen and went to the Kirk.
            So far as my life in St. Andrews was concerned, there were always soldiers at the old Barracks on the hill. I could prove it, were it necessary, from many reminiscences. I was told that when the Confederation of the provinces took place the English Government said, if you want solders you will have to pay for them, but as we declined to pay for them, and they wee of no used to us, the were taken away.
            I realize that when a man emigrates from the place of his birth he always in a retrospective view, sees it and every body and thing about as he had been accustomed to see it. It is always the same dear old home to him, regardless of its humbleness. Nature seems to place in the heart of man a love for the humble, old home that no amount of prosperity or riches in another sphere can obliterate, hence so many remember in their last will and testament a fond recollection of their old home. A I read the columns of the home paper it makes me sad to see how few names in it I recognize, I too forget how time passes, forget it is 48 years since I left and that great changes in the population have taken place, to see there is not he name of Wilson, Hatch, or Street in the town,--and so many that moved in the same circle—Col. David and Mrs. Mowatt, David W. And Mrs. Jack. Col. And Mrs. Wyer, Thomas Wyer, Mrs. Wiggin, the Hon. B. R. Stevenson, and his brother, Fletcher, all have passed to their reward. They were a goodly lot of ladies and gentlemen, who would add grace and dignity to any condition of life, and a community should be much the better for their having been of it.
--J. M., Boston, 1902


April 13/1905
Old Landmark Gone
The Street Wharf Goes Down with Buildings
Thursday last was a day of local sensations. First came a threatened fire, which drew everybody out in the rain storm. Then a few hours afterwards followed the collapse of the old Street wharf and the two warehouses thereon, owned respectively by the Glenn estate and H. O’Neill. The wind, and tide and ice we responsible for this catastrophe. The latter loosed the under pinning of the wharf, and the tide and wind did the rest. Both building will be complete wrecks. The Glen building contained a carload of shingle and a quantity of pine lumber, while the O’Neill warehouse had abut 50 tons of hard coal on the main floor. The contents of both buildings will likely be saved. Both buildings were very old—older, probably, than the oldest inhabitant. Postmaster Stevenson says that forty years ago he was employed as an office boy with the late James Bolton in one of the buildings; it had been standing for over half a century.  For many years, while St. Andrews was to the fore as West India port, the firm of James Street and Co. used these buildings as warehouses for rum, molasses, sugar and the other products of the West Indies that cam this way.  By their down fall two of the oldest land marks of the place have been swept away.


April 26/1906
Whipping Post in the Old Days
SA in old times utilized its law breakers by setting them to work on public improvements, as Saint John does at present. They had the same trouble experience when opportunity offered. Their mode of dealing with eh absconder, however, when he was recaptured, though highly efficacious as a deterrent, would scarcely be tolerated amongst us at the present day.  The following lively account of one of these attempted escapes is reported from St. Andrews on July 13, 1830:
One of the convicts employed at forming a common sewer in this town becoming wearied of his employment, on Monday last made a bold but unsuccessful attempt at escape. The villain had found some plan of unlocking his fetters although the lock cannot picked, and stripping off his party colored inexpressibles, underneath which he had provided himself with a pair made of white duck, he suddenly bolted and went on a smart trot up King Street, doubled, the corner of Queen street, and turned up Frederick street, where he was headed off, and being closely pursued in the rear showed fight, but was instantly overpowered and led back to confinement. On e the same day a meeting of the magistrates was held in order to decide upon suitable punishment for the misdemeanour, when it was adjudged that on the following day he should receive 39 lashes on the bare back; which punishment having been inflicted he has since been set work, with still less chance of escape than previously in making this imprudent trial.—St. John Globe.


May 17/1906
The Passing of the Old Bellman
Beacon, April 24, 1890
It is curious with what tenacity we cling to the customs of the by gone ages.
To a stranger dropping into St. Andrews nothing awakens more interest than the quaint old custom, which has descended from our forefathers, of “belling” the town when an auction it to be held. For a couple of hours before the auction, the bellman travels the main thoroughfare with slow and measured tread, his feet keeping “time, time, in a sort Runic rhyme” to the jingling and jangling of the auction bell, which he swings in his hand. At every street corner he halts, and proclaims in as loud a voice as he can command the nature of the sale, terms, and names the auctioneer, concluding his harangue by the usual “God Save the Queen.” Tradition has it that one of the old bellmen of the town, was in the habit of extending his proclamation by uttering after the words “God Save the Queen,” “And Garret the tailor.” This was, no doubt, an ingenious advertising dodge, which both the bellman and the tailor found to their mutual advantage to perpetuate. The present knight of the bell, who has held his position for a number of ears, never fails to conclude his oration by holding out the expectation of great bargains. No matter what the nature of the sale is, “great bargains” may always be expected according to the bellman’s story.
[the town is still belled on auction days to some extent but the old bellman with his quaint proclamation has passed away for ever, leaving many fragrant memories behind.]


Jan 31/1907
Early History of St. Andrews by K. C. Cockburn—interesting excerpts from old documents, name of town, lumbering potential, etc. Part two Feb 14, part three Feb 21, four 28.


July 25/1907
Picture with History
SA Fifty Years Ago Sought by Tourist
There is a picture in the writing room of Kennedy’s hotel that has an interesting history. It is a lithograph of SA, made by Frederick Wells, an officer of the 1st Royals, which regiment was stationed here about fifty years ago. Presumably that is about the age of the picture. At present it is the property of Mrs. R. M Hazen, of Saint John. Some years ago, the late Miss Hazen, of Saint John, was visiting a member of her family at Tonbridge, Kent, England. One day, in passing a bookseller’s shop she noticed this lithograph in the window and she at once secured it. After Miss Hazen’s death it fell into the hands of Mrs. Hazen, who prizes it very highly
            The picture bears below it the following inscription, which indicates that even at that remove period St. Andrews had a reputation as a tourist resort, besides being an aspirant for winter port honors:
            VIEW OF THE TOWN OF ST. ANDREWS, NB, WITH IS MAGNIFICENT HARBOR AND BAY. From the extreme beauty of its scenery and the salubrity of its climate, the town is much resorted to by tourist from all parts. It is situated at the entrance of the Bay of Fundy, at the southern and warmest extremity of NB; and lying in close proximity to the US at their nearest point to Great Britain it commands the whole of their extensive system of railways and is probably destined at no distant period to occupy an important position in the history of British north American, particularly as on the completion of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway (the great trunk line to the Canadas and which is now in active progress under the Earl Fitzwilliam, Lord Ashburton, and other gentlemen) it will become the winter port to those vast provinces and that line being the shortest which can be constructed to reach them on British territory it will naturally be much resorted to as a port of disembarkation for emigrants, who will doubtless long cherish it in grateful remembrance as the spot where after the perils of their voyage they first touched the hospitable shores of their adopted home. [circa 1857 then]


This lithograph hangs upstairs in the Charlotte County Archives.


Oct 24/1907
In the Old Staging Days.
When the Coach Ran from Saint John to St. Andrews. St. John Globe, Old-Time Sketches:--The mail to St. Andrews commenced operations on Monday, 20th of November 1837. There were twenty horses on the line, making five teams for distance of sixty-two miles. A very handsome new coach, called The Victoria, was exhibited in the city and the editor says of it: I we are rightly informed, this was the first appearance of the mail coach and four in the city of Saint John. The coach ran from St. Andrews on Monday, Wednesday and Friday leaving at 6 o’clock, and from Saint John on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, leaving at 7 o’clock. Fare each way 25 s. Way fares: St. Andrews to Magaguadavic 7s. The line connected with the US mail at Robbinston, from which a stage started every morning for the west at 9 o’clock. L. L. Copeland was agent of the proprietors. Directors of the company: Hon. James Allanshaw, Harris Hatch, James Campbell, of SA; Charles Loring, SG; Cyrus Stockwell, Edmund Kaye and Moses H. Perley, Saint John.


March 21/1912
“St. Andrews Night”
A “St. Andrews Night” at “Elm Corner” is always san evening of rare delight, but that of Monday last, under the auspices of the Canadian Literature Club, was even more delightful than usual. Well-written and well-told stories of the St. Andrews of long ago by such inimitable story-tellers as R. M. Jack, Charles Campbell, the late I. Allen Jack, Rev. A. W. Mahon, John Campbell, and Judge Cockburn made the hours slip by most pleasantly
            There were stories of old school-day battles, of the troublous day of 1818, of the Fenian raid, and of the many quaint characters that St. Andrews in its early day possessed.
            One amusing narrative was that of Frank Lynn, a mischievous lunatic, who, on his way to the asylum at St. John, possessed himself of the warrant of commitment, and, when he reached the asylum, persuaded the physician that the constable was the real lunatic. The constable was detained for several days while the roistering lunatic drove gaily back to St. Andrews.
            Then there was the story of the late Dr. Caleff, who, on a very foggy day in 1818, thought he heard a noise like a Yankee gunboat out in the bay. The Home Fencibles were brought out and remained on duty for two days. Then it was discovered that the mysterious noises had been caused by a stately old turkey gobbler.
            The story of a dainty little silver trowel, which had been handed down from the misty past, was among the stories told by Rev. A. W. Mahon.
            A most amusing story was that of a youthful British officer, who was hoodwinked into rowing down to Deer Island to fight a duel with the brother of an Eastport young woman he had flirted with. As the “brother” was a myth, there was no duel. The joke was not discovered by the officer until years after, when he was at Constantinople on his way to the Crimea.
            Among the Loyalist stories that were told was one relating to the history of the British coat of arms in All Saints’ Church, which had been brought from Wallingford, Conn., by the first rectors, Rev. Mr. Andrews.
            Many laughable incidents connected with the Fenian raid were narrated.
            Mr. John Campbell, during the narration of his reminiscences, declared that St. Andrews had not been so prosperous for 75 years as it is today.
            A feature of the evening was the display of “relics” of St. Andrews, among which were a venerable sampler; a wedding message of 1786, written upon birth bark; the family bible of the late Dr. Cassels, the first teacher of the grammar school, and the first Presbyterian clergyman of St. Andrews; the first bible used in Greenock church; a communion token of 1825; a gold signet ring bearing he Bredalbane crest; a medallion brooch; the banner of Hibernia Masonic Lodge, the first Masonic lodge to be established here; a ponderous old watch; an old picture of St. Andrews in its very early days, and a number of other most interesting and historic antiques.
            One of the most interesting “exhibits” made at the meeting was an autograph letter recently received by Rev. A. W. Mahon from the Archbishop of Canterbury.
            Miss Mowatt read the birch-bark wedding messages, which was a most unique production. During the evening Miss Gwen. Jack sang solos. Dainty refreshments were served by the hostesses, Miss Mowatt and Miss Campbell, and a most delightful evening was concluded by the singing of Auld Lang Syne and the National anthem.


Sept 26/1912
Reminiscences of Old St. Andrews
(Written by the late R. Melville Jack and Read Before the Canadian Literature Club, St. Andrews)
These sketches I will have to give you just as scattered reminiscences and you can classify them as you see fit.
            One of my first memories is my father telling me that he had seen a hundred vessels loading pine timber here at one time. That was before the duty was taken off the Baltic lumber in England. [1820] My father came from the West Indies, where he had been manager on a plantation and had the management of the slaves. When he landed in St. Andrews, he had only a half dollar (a silver dollar cut in halves). Mr. Rait was then the principal merchant there, and as his office was at the head of the wharf, he carried his trunk there and asked Mr. Rait if he could heave it until he found a job. The answer was that he could, and an officer of the lowest clerkship which was accepted at once was made him. The result was that eventually he became one of the partners in the business.
            I heard him tell a pretty good story of his early days. He and an old man, Nathan Niblock, slept in the store. Along the upper shelf of the room in which they slept were some 20 or 30 clocks. One evening my father wound all these clocks up and set the alarms so that commencing at midnight the first one would go off and be followed by the others in rotation. You can imagine the infernal din. Poor old Niblock was almost frightened out of his wits.
            There were some rather funny occurrences at the old Grammar School. Of course we of the Grammar school considered ourselves as the autocrats and many fights we had with other schools to uphold our supremacy, and I presume, owing to the “esprit de corps” we used to come out on top. There was a large school opposite ours with which we were continually at war and many pretty bloody battles were fought but the Grammar school kept its supremacy.
            One of the characters of the town was a young man usually called “crazy Kelly” who went dancing about the streets and though generally harmless, would when angered by very vicious. Another was Frank Lynn. William Henan, constable, was appointed to take him to the lunatic asylum at St. John. Henan got a horse and wagon and called for Frank and they started on their way. Frank seemed delighted at the idea of the trip and a stop at a grand hotel. On the way Henan showed Frank the warrant telling him that was the order from government for their trip, and as it was not immediately returned Henan forgot it or delayed to regain possession of it. On their arrival at he asylum, while Henan was putting up the horse, Frank proceeded to the building, saw the doctor, showing him the warrant and told him that he man who was looking after the horse was the patient and that he was laboring under the delusion that he was an officer bringing him to the asylum, with the result the Henan in spite of all his protests was detained and Frank returned to St. Andrews. Of course Henan was released afterward and Frank took his place.
            Kempt Boyd, a son of the old member, James Boyd, was generally up to some mischief. My brother Edward and Levi Handy having shot a large loon, Kempt suggested that they should make it a present to eh new lighthouse keeper (now the loon is about the toughest bird that swims or flies). So they took the bird to the lighthouse and made he keeper who was not acquainted with aquatic birds, a present of it, telling him that it was a splendid kind of duck and very rare. The man was delighted and invited them to supper when the delicacy would be served. The supper took place, but I doubt if a fork could be inserted into the bird, but they finished the side dishes and the drinkables.
            Another character was Mcbeath, an old Highlander who used to turn out in full highland costume and parade the streets on the Queen’s birth day playing the bagpipes and followed by the usual crowd of street urchins.
            One of the oldest persons I can recollect was Mr. Ker, originally of the firm of Ker, Douglass and Campbell, who did a large business in St. Andrews in the old days. I remember him at 90 years of age with long, thick, black hair and not a gray hair, in his head. Squire Wilson, who lived at Chamcook, is another of the old stock that I can remember well. He had a beautiful brick cottage about where Mr. Grimmer’s house now stands and a fine park in which were several deer. He built many ships, both at Chamcook and St. Andrews. There were two brothers, Edward and Joseph Wilson, who lived in the brick cottage now occupied by Mr. Everett. Among others I recall were Dimock and Wilson, who did quite a large business; Mr. Turner, the founder of the Odell business; Mr. Trenholm, who had quite a large orchard where we used to steal apples; old Joe, a negro who lived in an old ship’s cabin at the head of the town, and made splendid spruce beer; the Pottery on the brook that crosses the Joe’s point road just above the town. Flower pots were their principal product but they made clay marbles and we cold get a lot for a copper (no cents in those days). Then there was a broom factory, where Joe Handy’s place is, opposite Kennedy’s hotel and aback of that a racquet court. In those days the market wharf had shops and stores its entire length, but a great fire carried them off.


July 8/1916
Archaeology in St. Andrews
Some excavations are being made by the Streets Department of the Town Council on the eastern side of King Street northward from its junction with Water Street, and interesting discoveries have resulted. there has been exposed a street gutter neatly constructed with cobble stones, dating back to the time when St. Andrews enjoyed commercial prosperity and had a town government that carried on public works in an efficient manner. Years of neglect have allowed this gutter to be covered over with soil washed down from the roadway, and the soil was surmounted by a thick growth of turf or, rather, luxuriant grass. We hope the archaeological explorations will be continued and extended, for similar gutters may be discovered in other parts of the town where, for many years, the dividing line between the roadway and the foot paths has been completely obliterated.
            At the junction of Water and King Streets, close to the point where the explorations are being made, is an ancient ruin which many years ago lost all its picturesqueness, and now is the most unsightly jungle and refuse dump ever permitted to disfigure the business centre of any town. All the flotsam and jetsam which does not litter the streets (and much of it still does) find a repository in the “dismal swamp” of a jungle. Northing could be more unsightly to say hinting o fits insanitariness. the fence enclosing it on three side shad decayed and is rapidly disintegrating, and soon will be unsafe as a perch for those who are in the habit of roosting upon it or leaning against it in the early evening hours to gaze (and to comment) upon the passing pedestrians on business or on pleasure bent. Some evening, in spite of the unsightly props which now support it, the fence will collapse; and if this happens at a time when some of its usual occupants are perched upon it they may be precipitated into what looks as offensive as the Stygian pool is reputed to be.
            If one did not know it for a fact it would be difficult o believe that his “Tom-all-alone” nuisance and eyesore is the property of the Bank of Nova Scotia, on which it has been rumoured for year, the Banks proposes to erect Bank premises. those who have cherished the hope that the Bank would build, some day, are beginning to lose faith and those who ardently desire to see the institution which has a monopoly of the banking business of the town do something for the town in return for the support it receives, are languishing in despair.


St. Croix Courier
March 30/1933
Do You Recall these Names in SA?
Memories of Person and Events Familiar to Shiretown Residents 75 Years Ago Revived
A number of years ago a resident of long standing of the town of St. Andrews started a retrospective review of the quaint residents of that town with intended purpose of having the town clerk, Eber S. Polleys, add his embellishments of their respective characteristics thereto, as he was more familiar with them than any other person and fully competent to do so. But alas, the matter was postponed too long and the clerk had passed to his final reward.
            Through destiny this legacy was passed to me to complete a task beyond my ability to perform successfully. I only wish it had been deputed to more competent hands.
Most of the persons mentioned lived in the town 75 years ago and more, and will be remembered only by those old residents who still linger on the threshold.
            First, I will mention “Angelo Birch,” a Maltese sailor who drifted in on the flood tide and was stranded in the town. Unable to speak English, he was cared for by the charitable people, and remained a fixture.
            Our next was “Andy Sampson,” an old man in those years, who did a little farming on a portion of land located on the left of the road to the present cemetery, and who placed great confidence in his “priceless” mare, she who balked whenever it suited her. On each occasion he would threaten her destruction by aid of a pitchfork. [sounds like the man who was about a hundred, and could almost remember the Irish Rebellion, in the column by R. E. Armstrong, Nov. 7, 1895]
            Then there were “Wallace McLean,” a son of the old auctioneer of that name; “Jimmie Somers” and “Whisker Thompson,” both of whom were familiar, and odd customers, and “Cornaby Morrison,” “Paddy McDonald,” the town crier, with his bell in hand, advertising auction sales, at which “great bargains may be expected.”
            Among the women I refer to Sally Bacon, Mrs. Burns, Mrs. Herrington, Mrs. Cumberland, and Mrs. Wallace.
            Among the colored population George Cole, Joe and Sarah Alexander and son, Peter; George Stewart and Black Betsy [must be Betsy Ross]; and to complete the list Odbur McMichael, who conducted a barber shop and lunch room near the market wharf.
            Among some of the business men of that time may be mentioned Henry O’Neill, John Bradford, Robert Alexander, Henry Stentiford, John Wilson (blacksmith), Edward Pheasant, Michael Clark, Denis Bradley. I might continue indefinitely, but that is sufficient.
            I recall the fire of 1856, which destroyed the row of buildings on the south side of the market square, an some 14 years later, the burning of the old Town Hall and the Pheasant Hotel stables.
            Finally there comes to my mind the birch trees near the first marsh, the elm and poplar trees near the head of Water Street; the “Rose,” “Thistle” and “Shamrock” locomotives of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad and Jack Saul, engineer.
            In 1866 the Fenian raid threatened, which proved such a fiasco, and at night the whole town was thrown into excitement through misunderstanding of signals to be given should an attempted landing be made by the disloyal foe. The landing of the British 17th Regiment to protect the citizens and the advent of the St. John Volunteers for the same purpose; when H. M. S. “Duncan” ran on the sunken reef between St. Andrews Island and the American shore.
            I have endeavoured so far as my memory serves me, to complete the article given me to finish. There are man anecdotes that might be mentioned in connection with the peculiar characters referred to, but are omitted purposely as possible that was not intended by the original author, and inspired by the most kindly feeling for all.
--A Native Son


St. Croix Courier
Sept 3/1936
Shire town Items
Town Buys Historic Bill
A three-day auction sale was held last week at the residence of the late David Clark. There was a fine collection of old mahogany furniture and old-fashioned dishes, most of which brought good prices. The original copy of a memorandum of the sale and removal of the old Coffee House from Penobscot to St. Andrews in 1783 was bid on by the Mayor for the town. This interesting old building was unfortunately destroyed in the disastrous fire of 1930.


St. Croix Courier
Jan 26/1939
Shire town Items
A Glorious Age Gone
In looking over a recently compiled list of the ships built at St. Andrews between the years 1830 and 1880, the following interesting item was found: “Schooner Esther, built at St. Andrews, NB, 1830, rebuilt at St. Andrews, 1869. Capt. John S. Maloney, Master, and sole owner. Lost on Misery island, Mass., April 15, 1881.” Of all the persons mentioned in connection with the building or sailing of these many ships, Capt. Maloney is the only one still living. He is one of our oldest residents and still enjoys excellent health. After retiring from the sea he made a study of the game of checkers as a hobby and even when past eighty was too much for any of the younger experts. Quite a few descendants of those engaged in this now vanished industry are living in St. Andrews, but most of the names mentioned in the records are no longer on the of the inhabitants. And no longer “the stately ships go on, to the haven under the hill.”


St. Croix Courier
Sept 7/1939
Shiretown Items
Historic Landmark
Another of the old landmarks is being torn down, the building last occupied by the Hum Wing laundry, and considered by most authorities as having been one of the original loyalist homes. As far back as any of the oldest residents whom we saw can recall, is when the owner was Nathan Treadwell, an undertaken who made caskets as well as conducted funerals. After Mr. Treadwell’s death the property came into the possession of one of his daughters who had married William Sharpe. The children of this family moved away from St
 Andrews about forty years ago and Owen Rigby, a widower of Mrs. Sharpe’s sister, occupied the premises for a time doing undertaking work. Later the property was bought by Dr. H. P. O’Neil, who recently sold it to the Quoddy Coal Company. Nathan Treadwell was an uncle of Harold Stickney, an octogenarian of Wedgwood fame, having married a sister of Harold’s mother. Nathan was also a brother of John Treadwell, grandfather of Fred Treadwell, now the only one of that name in St. Andrews. Fred’s great-grandfather, William, came to St. Andrews about 1800, moving here from Maugerville, NB., where he had been given a grant of land along with other loyalists. He married a daughter of Colonel Peck, then living at Campobello, and built a home here on the lot, now vacant, between the home of Jack Thompson and the O’Neill property on Water Street. At that time there was a open air skating rink where the O’Neill and Garnett properties now stand, and a few yards from the present location of the St. Andrews Arena. John Treadwell built the house where Fred now lives, and installed a system of waterworks by means of a wooden aqueduct leading from a well about three blocks distant on the property now owned by Robert Stinson, on Montague Street.


St. Croix Courier
Dec 28/1939
Shiretown Items—Echoes from the Glamorous Past. Before the days of the railroads there was a regular stage route from Boston to Halifax. Passengers and mail were brought to Robbinston, and from there were brought across to Joe’s Point on a ferry operated by the father of John Friar, who will be remembered by older residents. From this point another “coach and four” sped over narrow and rocky roads on its way to Halifax. As the entire distance was covered at top speed it was necessary to stop frequently to change horses. This old building in Bocabec, was one of the regular stops and to this day is called the “Old Exchange.” it is about eight miles from St. Andrews and is now the home of Louis Holt. Railroad building began in NB in the year 1857, [sic] the first line running from St. Andrews to Watt Junction, but it was not until about 1880 that a system connecting the most important towns of the province had been established. In the meantime the stages continued to carry the mail and most of the passengers. In 1876 W. E. Mallory got the contract for carrying mail between the towns of SS, St. Andrews and St. George. He operated a livery stable in St. Andrews and made daily round trips to these neighboring towns. By this time, however, the driving of the stage had lost all its glamour and romance. It was simply a daily drive over the same route, tiresome and uneventful, the trip being made in a light express wagon with one or two horses as the load required. Mr. Mallory’s contract expired in 1880, and being again put up to tender, was awarded to W. H. Whitlock of St. Stephen. The latter continued to carry on until the carrying of mails was taken over by the railroads in 1882.


St. Croix Courier
Feb 11, 1943
Shiretown Items
The Building of the Ship
The recent launching of a wooden mine-sweeper in a New Brunswick port stirs the memory of old-timers here who can recall when St. Andrews was one fo the leading shipping and ship-buldings centres in what is now known as the Maritime provinces. There are many lving who can remember the launching of the Annie P. Odell in 1878 and that of the George Lamb in September 1882. [George Lamb was the father of our own Andrew Lamb, owner-operator of the St. Andrews Foundry, Town Councillor and generally prominent businesman of the town] But how many know anytyhing about the building and launching of the first ship here? From a few facs which I have obtained from a directl descendant of the man who was the bilder, owner and master, I shall try to write the story fo that momentous event. The exact date is nost in the scanty records, but suffice it to say it was in the long, long ago. First the timbers were gathered and piled around, birch, spruce, pine and tamarack from our native forests, and oak for the keel from the motherland. About midsumer the keel of oak for this noble ship was laid, scarfed and bolted, straight and strong, and the real work was ready to begin. Day by day, ‘mid the sound of axes and hammers, mallets and saws, the vessel grew until a skeleton ship, framed with perfect symmetry rose to view. Week after week with toil and song, the building of this ship went on, till at long last, the planking done and the rudder hung, the ship was ready to be launched. The day appointed for the launching, though in the month of February, was like a day in march, mild and calm and bright and a full tide flowing. The ship was duly christened by the wife of one of the big shots of the town, whose name is nost in the mists of the past, and a prayer offered for the safety of the ship and of those who might sail in her. Then the blocking was knocked from beneath her keel, and the ship slid out to take the water as graceuflly as a swan. She was a square-rigger with three masts, in other words a full-rigged ship and was a goodly, staunch and strong as any ship that sailed the wintry seas. She was built, owned and siled by Capt. William Harvey, who was the great-grandfather of Mary Hunt, who still lives in St. Andrews. The ship was called “Mary Stubbs,” which was the maiden name of Capt. Harvey’s wife. Her first trip was to the West Indies with a load of lumber, returnign with a cargo of rum and molasses. Wherever her broken, or roted or distintegrated timbers may lie, may they rest in peace! Requiescat.


St. Croix Courier
April 1, 1943
Shiretown Items
Chamcook of Other Days
A century ago, the village of Chamcook was a thriving ship-building centre, had two or three saw-mills, a grist mill and a paper mill. The prosperity of Chamcook at that time was chiefly owing to the enterprise of one man, John Wilson, after whose death at the age of 70 years on April 1st, 1855, the place began gradually to decline. The following extract from Mr. Wilson’s obituary in the St. Andrews paper shows the important position he held in the community and how his loss would affect its prosperity.
“Mr. Wilso has been engaged in mercantile and other pursuits in this county for more than 30 years and such was the diversity of his business transaactions, embracing almost every occupation incident to the country, that he kept a great number of men in constant employ. As a merchant he had few equals, well acquainted with markets of the world, entirely familiar with the trade and resources of the province, energetic and temperate, always active and persevering, he seldom undertook a work that he did not complete. He devoted the whole powers of his mind to the construction of the St. Andrews-quebec Railroad.”
            Mr. Wilson operated several sawmills on Chamcook stream as well as a grist-ill, where wheat flour, buckwheat and oatmeal were manufactured. Also, and most interesting of all, he owned and operated a paper mill, near the present site of Rankin’s sawmill. On this paper was printed the St. Andrews Herald, and the following advertisement appears in the issue of Feb. 5th. 1827, “Wanted,--an apprentice to the paper-making business. Apply to the mill at Chamcook or the Herald office.” Mr. Wilson built a beautiful stone house on the site now occupied by the Grimer residence. This house was destroyed by fire in 1882. The present generation will remember the grist mill which tumbled down and was removed just a few year ago. It was used for many years by Davideson Grimmer.
            The two story building still standing on the Glebe road over the Chamcook stream was the Dimick and Wilson store, and no doubt at one time did a thriving busienss. There was a brickyard at Chamcook at one time, but  whether during Mr Wilson’s residence there or at a later period, is not now known. It wa situated outside the dock gates adjacent to the shipyard. Its location can be easily found today by the bricks scattered around. But the most important industry carried on in Mr. Wilson’s time was ship-building. At an early date the inenr harbour at chamcook was coverted into a dock from which the tide could be shut out. A dam with gates was built, the remains of which can still be seen at half-tide. A flume was constructed which carried the water from the milll stream outside the dock gates. There were two sets of these, out and inner, and the gates were controleld b water pressure. Many ships were repaired in this dock. It is known to have been in operation in 1842 as a bill for repairs on the structure is still ixistence.
            Closely associated with John Wilson in the ship-building industry was John Townshend and his four sons. The Townshends had been operating a yard at St. Andrews near Indian Point and were brought to Chamcook by Wilson to finish a dhip on the stocks there. They remaiend there and carried on an extensive business for many years, chiefly under contract with Wilson. At a later date wo of the sons were business partners, and Charles Short, when a young man, was employed by them and later became their master builder. Short in 1854 built the Homeward Bound, a ship of 594 tons, at Digdeguash. For some years William Townshend and Charles Short were partners, during which period they built the Lady Milton. The account with Dimick and Wilson re the building of this ship is still in existence.
            Another record in an old time book says that Townshend and Short commenced work on the new ship, Even Star, Sept. 4th, 1855, at Indian Point. The Townshends operated three yards in Chamcook. There were two sets of blocks on what is known as the Public Landing, where the Pristman cottage now stands. William built on the east side of the stream, these two yards beign inside the dock. A third yeard was situated on the west side of the harbour jiust outside the dock. People still living can remember the remains of the old bed logs in these locations. I have a list of some of the ships built at Chamcook which I shall send in next week.
St. Croix Courier
April 26/1945
Shiretown Items
Water Supply (Old aqueduct discovered in St. Andrews.)
It may be news to the younger generation here in St. Andrews that we had a system of waterworks long before a public supply was introduced in St. Stephen. In looking over some old papers sent to me by a friend I came across an editorial in the Courier of May 2, 1872, which strongly advocates the introduction of a water supply for the Town of St. Stephen along the lines suggested by William Cananagh. This plan was to lay aqueducts of Norway pine from a suitable point on Dennis Stream in a direct line to Church Hill and thence through the principal streets, with branch pipes made of the same material with smaller bore. The editorial goes on to say: “There is an aqueduct of this description in St. Andrews which we believe has been in use for over forty years [1832], by which almost half the town is supplied with water from one spring.” As far as I can learn no records exist of this original system of water supply for St. Andrews. When our present system of water and sewers was introduced here in more recent years the remains of the old aqueduct were found in various places throughout the town. No one with whom I have talked seems to know anything very definite about the matter. If any readers here, or elsewhere can supply any scraps of information I should be pleased to hear from them. Unfortunately two of our citizens, Eber Polleys and James Cummings, who were noted for their knowledge of local history, have long since passed to their reward. Contrary, however, to the statement quoted from the Courier, I think there was more than one source or supply here. I am told that the well on the property now belonging to Robert Stinson supplied the district immediately below and extended up and down Queen and Water Streets. On my own property which was built in 1859 a circular opening about a foot in diameter was provided for the entrance of the aqueduct to the cellar. The wood has long since rotted away and the entrance is still there. The supply in this case must have come from the head of Princess Royal Street or possibly the head of King Street where it is known there was a spring with a good flow of water. Our present water supply comes from Chamcook Lake and was introduced about 25 years ago. I think SS’s first supply was from the St. Croix River but now is from a spring at Maxwell’s crossing. Perhaps “Talk of the Town” can give us the straight of this with the dates.


St. Croix Courier
May 3/1945
Shiretown Items
The Aqueduct (Details of old aqueduct discovered.)
A reader has furnished me with the following interesting information about the water system which existed here a hundred or more years ago. Appended here is a copy of the Act pass on march 8, 1830, which my good friend copied from “Acts of the General Assembly, 1786-1838,” one of the interesting old books in her library. She also states that an aqueduct of wood, which evidently was installed at a later period when the machine shop was built here, extended from a well on the Andrew Lamb property at the head of King and Princess Royal streets to the railway machine shop which was located just south or south-east of the station. This wooden pipeline crossed Augustus street near Montague and the wood was still sound when the street was opened there about 20 years ago. The John Aymar who is mentioned in the Act, was a block and spar maker who had a shop at the corner of Water and Frederick streets (SA Directory 1865-66), and who lived in the house now occupied by Robert Stinson and family at the corner of Princess Royal and Montague Streets. Many the evening I spent as a youngster coasting on what we called “Marr’s” (or Meagher’s) hill without knowing or caring the origin of the name. The first, and unaccented syllable of the name “Aymar” had been dropped by the boys of that period and the name thus abbreviated or corrupted, although perhaps Mr. Aymar had not been dead for more than 20 years.
            “Cap. XVIII Acts General Assembly 1786-1838
            “An Act to grant John Aymar the privilege of supplying the Town of St. Andrews with water by pipes. Passed March 1830.
            “Whereas the conveyance of water by pipes to the several houses in the town plot of St. Andrews would be highly beneficial to the public, and is a measure universally desired; and John Aymar, an inhabitant of the said Town, is desirous to obtain the privilege of supplying the same by pipes as aforesaid:
            “Be it enacted by the President, Council and Assembly, that the privilege of carrying water ot the houses of the inhabitants of St. Andrews in pipes, through the several streets thereof, be and the same is herby granted to John Aymar, so long as he shall keep the same in operation and good repair. Provided always tha the said John Aymar, shall at his own coasts and charge, and without unnecessary delay, repair and make good any and every injury or damage thereby one to said streets or any part thereof.
            “And be it further enacted that the said John Aymar shall make and keep in good repair proper openings and (plugs to be used only in case of fire) in all such places where his pipes extend, as the Firewards of the Town of St. Andrews may direct or approve. the said Firewards to be accountable for the actual expense thereof.
            “And be it further enacted that if the said John Aymar should neglect so to make and adjust proper plugs on the requisition of the said Firewards, that it should be lawful for them, the said Firewards, to cause the same to be done and completed accordingly.
            “And be it further enacted that this Act shall continue and be in force for the term of fifteen years, and no longer.”


St. Croix Courier
Dec 9/1954
Rare Coins Found
Walter Stuart, a sidewalk superintendant of one of the construction jobs presently underway in St. Andrews, is the possessor of a large copper coin, which is  143 years old. It is solid copper about the the manufacturer was the B and B Copper Coin Company of England and its inscription says only payable in London, Swansea or Bristol. The date it carries is 1811 and it is possible this coin could have been dropped by a member of a miitary company which at that time was established at Fort Tipperary. If anyone is in doubt as to the life of the copper tubing the plumber now installs in your house, this copper coin, which is practically as bright as new, is sufficient to prove its long life and durability.


St. Croix Courier
Jan 13/1955
First of Kind
During the present building boom which has been going on in St. Andrews, it might be interesting to mention something of the first twostorey house to be built here. A man named John Dunn bought the frame and materials from New York in 1784 and erected the house on Water street in St. Andrews. It is now owned and occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Hope Mcquoid. Mr. Dunn was the second sheriff of Charlotte county from 1790 to 1803. He was also controller of customs at St. Andrews for many years. He died in 1829 and is buried in the old High Church cyring ground where a large stone tablet marks his last restin place. Two-storey houses are not common today, rather the trend is to the bungalow or one-storey type and it si sinteresting to not etha the first two-storey effort here is still standing and in every day use.